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Abstract

Hands-on guide to configuring and using OpenDJ features. The OpenDJ project offers open source LDAP directory services in Java.

## Preface

This guide shows you how to configure, maintain, and troubleshoot OpenDJ directory services. This guide also describes file layouts, ports used, and standards, controls, extended operations, and languages supported for OpenDJ installations.

## 1. Who Should Read this Guide

This guide is written for directory designers and administrators who build, deploy, and maintain OpenDJ directory services for your organizations.

This guide starts by introducing the OpenDJ administrative interfaces and tools, and by showing how to manage OpenDJ server processes. It also demonstrates how to import and export directory data. This guide continues by showing how to configure and monitor the principle features of individual OpenDJ servers, and how to configure and monitor replicated server topologies for distributed high availability. It then demonstrates how to tune, troubleshoot, and move servers. This guide concludes with appendices of useful reference information for directory designers and administrators.

You do not need to be an LDAP wizard to learn something from this guide, though a background in directory services and maintaining server software can help. You do need some background in managing servers and services on your operating system of choice. You can nevertheless get started with this guide, and then learn more as you go along.

## 2. Formatting Conventions

Most examples in the documentation are created on GNU/Linux or Mac OS X. Where it is helpful to make a distinction between operating environments, examples for UNIX, GNU/Linux, Mac OS X, and so forth are labeled (UNIX). Mac OS X specific examples can be labeled (Mac OS X). Examples for Microsoft Windows can be labeled (Windows). To avoid repetition, however, file system directory names are often given only in UNIX format as in /path/to/server, even if the text applies to C:\path\to\server as well.

Absolute path names usually begin with the placeholder /path/to/. This path might translate to /opt/, C:\Program Files\, or somewhere else on your system.

Command line, terminal sessions are formatted as follows.

$echo$JAVA_HOME
/path/to/jdk

Program listings are formatted as follows.

class Test {
public static void main(String [] args)  {
System.out.println("This is a program listing.");
}
}

## 3. Accessing Documentation Online

ForgeRock core documentation, such as what you are now reading, aims to be technically accurate and complete with respect to the software documented.

Core documentation therefore follows a three-phase review process designed to eliminate errors.

• Product managers and software architects review project documentation design with respect to the users' software lifecycle needs.

• Subject matter experts review proposed documentation changes for technical accuracy and completeness with respect to the corresponding software.

• Quality experts validate implemented documentation changes for technical validity with respect to the software, technical completeness with respect to the scope of the document, and usability for the expected audience.

The review process helps to ensure that documentation published for a ForgeRock release is technically accurate and complete.

Fully reviewed, published core documentation is available at http://docs.forgerock.org/. Use this documentation when working with a ForgeRock Enterprise release.

In-progress documentation can be found at each project site under the Developer Community projects page. Use this documentation when trying a nightly build.

The ForgeRock Community Wikis and provide additional, user-created information. We encourage you to join the community, so that you can update the Wikis, too.

## 4. Joining the ForgeRock Community

After you sign up to join the ForgeRock community, you can edit the Community Wikis, and also log bugs and feature requests in the issue tracker.

If you have a question regarding a project but cannot find an answer in the project documentation or Wiki, browse to the Developer Community page for the project, where you can find details on joining the project mailing lists, and find links to mailing list archives. You can also suggest updates to documentation through the ForgeRock docs mailing list.

The Community Wikis describe how to check out and build source code. Should you want to contribute a patch, test, or feature, or want to author part of the core documentation, first have a look on the ForgeRock site at how to get involved.

## Chapter 1. Understanding Directory Services

A directory resembles a dictionary or a phone book. If you know a word, you can look it up its entry in the dictionary to learn its definition or its pronunciation. If you know a name, you can look it up its entry in the phone book to find the telephone number and street address associated with the name. If you are bored, curious, or have lots of time, you can also read through the dictionary, phone book, or directory, entry after entry.

Where a directory differs from a paper dictionary or phone book is in how entries are indexed. Dictionaries typically have one index: words in alphabetical order. Phone books, too: names in alphabetical order. Directories entries on the other hand are often indexed for multiple attributes, names, user identifiers, email addresses, telephone numbers. This means you can look up a directory entry by the name of the user the entry belongs to, but also by her user identifier, her email address, or her telephone number, for example.

OpenDJ directory services are based on the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP). Much of this chapter serves therefore as an introduction to LDAP. OpenDJ directory services also provide RESTful access to directory data, yet as directory administrator you will find it useful to understand the underlying model even if most users are accessing the directory over HTTP rather than LDAP.

## 1.1. How Directories & LDAP Evolved

Phone companies have been managing directories for many decades. The Internet itself has relied on distributed directory services like DNS since the mid 1980s.

It was not until the late 1980s, however, that experts from what is now the International Telecommunications Union brought forth the X.500 set of international standards, including Directory Access Protocol. The X.500 standards specify Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) protocols and data definitions for general-purpose directory services. The X.500 standards were designed to meet the needs of systems built according to the X.400 standards, covering electronic mail services.

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol has been around since the early 1990s. LDAP was originally developed as an alternative protocol that would allow directory access over Internet protocols rather than OSI protocols, and be lightweight enough for desktop implementations. By the mid 1990s, LDAP directory servers became generally available and widely used.

Until the late 1990s, LDAP directory servers were designed primarily with quick lookups and high availability for lookups in mind. LDAP directory servers replicate data, so when an update is made, that update gets pushed out to other peer directory servers. Thus if one directory server goes down, lookups can continue on other servers. Furthermore, if a directory service needs to support more lookups, the administrator can simply add another directory server to replicate with its peers.

As organizations rolled out larger and larger directories serving more and more applications, they discovered that they needed high availability not only for lookups, but also for updates. Around the year 2000 directories began to support multi-master replication, that is replication with multiple read-write servers. Soon thereafter the organizations with the very largest directories started to need higher update performance as well as availability.

The OpenDJ code base began in the mid 2000s, when engineers solving the update performance issue decided the cost of adapting the existing C-based directory technology for high performance updates would be higher than the cost of building a next generation, high performance directory using Java technology.

## 1.2. About Data In LDAP Directories

LDAP directory data is organized into entries, similar to the entries for words in the dictionary, or for subscriber names in the phone book. A sample entry follows.

dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
uid: bjensen
cn: Babs Jensen
cn: Barbara Jensen
facsimileTelephoneNumber: +1 408 555 1992
gidNumber: 1000
givenName: Barbara
homeDirectory: /home/bjensen
l: Cupertino
mail: bjensen@example.com
objectClass: inetOrgPerson
objectClass: organizationalPerson
objectClass: person
objectClass: posixAccount
objectClass: top
ou: People
ou: Product Development
roomNumber: 0209
sn: Jensen
telephoneNumber: +1 408 555 1862
uidNumber: 1076


Barbara Jensen's entry has a number of attributes, such as uid: bjensen, telephoneNumber: +1 408 555 1862, and objectClass: posixAccount[1]. When you look up her entry in the directory, you specify one or more attributes and values to match. The directory server then returns entries with attribute values that match what you specified.

The attributes you search for are indexed in the directory, so the directory server can retrieve them more quickly.[2]

The entry also has a unique identifier, shown at the top of the entry, dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com. DN stands for distinguished name. No two entries in the directory have the same distinguished name. Yet, DNs are typically composed of case insensitive attributes.[3]

LDAP entries are arranged hierarchically in the directory. The hierarchical organization resembles a file system on a PC or a web server, often imagined as an upside-down tree structure, looking similar to a pyramid. [4] The distinguished name consists of components separated by commas, uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com. The names are little-endian. The components reflect the hierarchy of directory entries.

Barbara Jensen's entry is located under an entry with DN ou=People,dc=example,dc=com, an organization unit and parent entry for the people at Example.com. The ou=People entry is located under the entry with DN dc=example,dc=com, the base entry for Example.com. DC stands for domain component. The directory has other base entries, such as cn=config, under which the configuration is accessible through LDAP. A directory can serve multiple organizations, too. You might find dc=example,dc=com, dc=mycompany,dc=com, and o=myOrganization in the same LDAP directory. Therefore when you look up entries, you specify the base DN to look under in the same way you need to know whether to look in the New York, Paris, or Tokyo phone book to find a telephone number.[5]

## 1.3. About LDAP Client & Server Communication

In some client server communication, like web browsing, a connection is set up and then torn down for each client request to the server. LDAP has a different model. In LDAP the client application connects to the server and authenticates, then requests any number of operations, perhaps processing results in between requests, and finally disconnects when done.

The standard operations are as follows.

• Bind (authenticate). The first operation in an LDAP session usually involves the client binding to the LDAP server, with the server authenticating the client.[6] Authentication identifies the client's identity in LDAP terms, the identity which is later used by the server to authorize (or not) access to directory data that the client wants to lookup or change.

• Search (lookup). After binding, the client can request that the server return entries based on an LDAP filter, which is an expression that the server uses to find entries that match the request, and a base DN under which to search. For example, to lookup all entries for people with email address bjensen@example.com in data for Example.com, you would specify a base DN such as ou=People,dc=example,dc=com and the filter (mail=bjensen@example.com).

• Compare. After binding, the client can request that the server compare an attribute value the client specifies with the value stored on an entry in the directory.

This operation is not used as commonly as others.

• Modify. After binding, the client can request that the server change one or more attribute values on an entry. Often administrators do not allow clients to change directory data, so allow appropriate access for client application if they have the right to update data.

• Add. After binding, the client can request to add one or more new LDAP entries to the server.

• Delete. After binding, the client can request that the server delete one or more entries. To delete and entry with other entries underneath, first delete the children, then the parent.

• Modify DN. After binding, the client can request that the server change the distinguished name of the entry. In other words, this renames the entry or moves it to another location. For example, if Barbara changes her unique identifier from bjensen to something else, her DN would have to change. For another example, if you decide to consolidate ou=Customers and ou=Employees under ou=People instead, all the entries underneath much change distinguished names. [7]

• Unbind. When done making requests, the client can request an unbind operation to end the LDAP session.

• Abandon. When a request seems to be taking too long to complete, or when a search request returns many more matches than desired, the client can send an abandon request to the server to drop the operation in progress.

For practical examples showing how to perform the key operations using the command line tools delivered with OpenDJ directory server, read Performing LDAP Operations.

## 1.4. About LDAP Controls & Extensions

LDAP has standardized two mechanisms for extending what directory servers can do beyond the basic operations listed above. One mechanism involves using LDAP controls. The other mechanism involves using LDAP extended operations.

LDAP controls are information added to an LDAP message to further specify how an LDAP operation should be processed. For example, the Server Side Sort Request Control modifies a search to request that the directory server return entries to the client in sorted order. The Subtree Delete Request Control modifies a delete to request that the server also remove child entries of the entry targeted for deletion.

One special search operation that OpenDJ supports is Persistent Search. The client application sets up a Persistent Search to continue receiving new results whenever changes are made to data that is in the scope of the search, thus using the search as a form of change notification. Persistent Searches are intended to remain connected permanently, though they can be idle for long periods of time.

The directory server can also send response controls in some cases to indicate that the response contains special information. Examples include responses for entry change notification, password policy, and paged results.

For the list of supported LDAP controls, see LDAP Controls.

LDAP extended operations are additional LDAP operations not included in the original standard list. For example, the Cancel Extended Operation works like an abandon operation, but finishes with a response from the server after the cancel is complete. The StartTLS Extended Operation allows a client to connect to a server on an unsecure port, but then start Transport Layer Security negotiations to protect communications.

For the list of supported LDAP extended operations, see LDAP Extended Operations.

As mentioned early in this chapter, directories have indexes for multiple attributes. In fact by default OpenDJ does not let normal users perform searches that are not indexed, because such searches mean OpenDJ has to scan the entire directory looking for matches.

As directory administrator, part of your responsibility is making sure directory data is properly indexed. OpenDJ provides tools for building and rebuilding indexes, for verifying indexes, and also for evaluating how well they are working.

For help better understanding and managing indexes, read the chapter Indexing Attribute Values.

Some databases are designed to hold huge amounts of data for a particular application. Although such databases might support multiple applications, how their data is organized depends a lot on the particular applications served.

In contrast, directories are designed for shared, centralized services. Although the first guides to deploying directory services suggested taking inventory of all the applications that would access the directory, many directory administrators today do not even know how many applications use their services. The shared, centralized nature of directory services fosters interoperability in practice, and has helped directory services be successful in the long term.

Part of what makes this possible is the shared model of directory user information, and in particular the LDAP schema. LDAP schema defines what the directory can contain. This means that directory entries are not arbitrary data, but instead tightly codified objects whose attributes are completely predictable from publicly readable definitions. Many schema definitions are in fact standard, and so are the same not just across a directory service but across different directory services.

At the same time, unlike some databases, LDAP schema and the data it defines can be extended on the fly while the service is running. LDAP schema is also accessible over LDAP. One attribute of every entry is its set of objectClass values. This gives you as administrator great flexibility in adapting your directory service to store new data without losing or changing the structure of existing data, and also without ever stopping your directory service.

For a closer look, see Managing Schema.

In addition to directory schema, another feature of directory services that enables sharing is fine-grained access control.

As directory administrator, you can control who has access to what data when, how, where and under what conditions by using access control instructions (ACI). You can allow some directory operations and not others. You can scope access control from the whole directory service down to individual attributes on directory entries. You can specify when, from what host or IP address, and what strength of encryption is needed in order to perform a particular operation.

As ACIs are stored on entries in the directory, you can furthermore update access controls while the service is running, and even delegate that control to client applications. OpenDJ combines the strengths of ACIs with separate administrative privileges to help you secure access to directory data.

For more, read Configuring Privileges & Access Control.

Replication in OpenDJ consists of copying each update to the directory service to multiple directory servers. This brings both redundancy in the case of network partitions or of crashes, and also scalability for read operations. Most directory deployments involve multiple servers replicating together.

When you have replicated servers, all of which are writable, you can have replication conflicts. What if, for example, there is a network outage between two replicas, and meanwhile two different values are written to the same attribute on the same entry on the two replicas? In nearly all cases, OpenDJ replication can resolve these situations automatically without involving you, the directory administrator. This makes your directory service resilient and safe even in the unpredictable real world.

One perhaps counterintuitive aspect of replication is that although you do add directory read capacity by adding replicas to your deployment, you do not add directory write capacity by adding replicas. As each write operation must be replayed everywhere, the result is that if you have N servers, you have N write operations to replay.

Another aspect of replication to keep in mind is that it is "loosely consistent." Loosely consistent means that directory data will eventually converge to be the same everywhere, but it will not necessarily be the same everywhere right away. Client applications sometimes get this wrong when they write to a pool of load-balanced directory servers, immediately read back what they wrote, and are surprised that it is not the same. If your users are complaining about this, either make sure their application always gets sent to the same server, or else ask that they adapt their application to work in a more realistic manner.

To get started with replication, see Managing Data Replication.

Directory Services Markup Language (DSML) was developed starting in 1999 and v2.0 became a standard in 2001. DSMLv2 describes directory data and basic directory operations in XML format, allowing them to be carried in SOAP messages. DSMLv2 further allows clients to batch multiple operations together in a single request, to be processed either in sequential order or in parallel.

OpenDJ provides support for DSMLv2 as a DSML gateway, which is a Servlet that connects to any standard LDAPv3 directory. DSMLv2 opens basic directory services to SOAP based web services and service oriented architectures.

To set up DSMLv2 access, see DSML Client Access.

OpenDJ can expose directory data as JSON resources over HTTP to REST clients, providing easy access to directory data for developers who are not familiar with LDAP. RESTful access depends on configuration that describes how the JSON representation maps to LDAP entries.

Although client applications have no need to understand LDAP, OpenDJ's underlying implementation still uses the LDAP model for its operations. The mapping adds some overhead. Furthermore, depending on the configuration, individual JSON resources can require multiple LDAP operations. For example, an LDAP user entry represents manager as a DN (of the manager's entry). The same manager might be represented in JSON as an object holding the manager's user ID and full name, in which case OpenDJ must look up the manager's entry to resolve the mapping for the manager portion of the JSON resource, in addition to looking up the user's entry. As another example, suppose a large group is represented in LDAP as a set of 100,000 DNs. If the JSON resource is configured so that a member is represented by its name, then listing that resource would involve 100,000 LDAP searches to translate DNs to names.

A primary distinction between LDAP entries and JSON resources is that LDAP entries hold sets of attributes and their values, whereas JSON resources are documents containing arbitrarily nested objects. As LDAP data is governed by schema, almost no LDAP objects are arbitrary collections of data. [8] Furthermore, JSON resources can hold arrays, ordered collections that can contain duplicates, whereas LDAP attributes are sets, unordered collections without duplicates. For most directory and identity data, these distinctions do not matter. You are likely to run into them however if you try to turn your directory into a document store for arbitrary JSON resources.

Despite some extra cost in terms of system resources, exposing directory data over HTTP can unlock your directory services for a new generation of applications. The configuration provides flexible mapping, so that you can configure views that correspond to how client applications need to see directory data. OpenDJ also gives you a deployment choice for HTTP access. You can deploy the REST LDAP gateway, which is a Servlet that connects to any standard LDAPv3 directory, or you can activate the HTTP Connection Handler on OpenDJ itself to allow direct and more efficient HTTP and HTTPS access.

For examples showing how to use RESTful access, see the chapter on Performing RESTful Operations.

## 1.11. About Building Directory Services

This chapter is meant to serve as an introduction, and so does not even cover everything in this guide, let alone everything you might want to know about directory services.

When you have understood enough of the concepts to build the directory services you want to deploy, you must still build a prototype and test it before you roll out shared, centralized services for your organization. Read the chapter on Tuning Servers For Performance for a look at how to meet the service levels your clients expect.

[1] The objectClass attribute type indicates which types of attributes are allowed and optional for the entry. As the entries object classes can be updated online, and even the definitions of object classes and attributes are expressed as entries that can be updated online, directory data is extensible on the fly.

[2] Attribute values do not have to be strings. Some attribute values are pure binary like certificates and photos.

[3] Sometimes your distinguished names include characters that you must escape. The following example shows an entry that includes escaped characters in the DN.

$ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com "(uid=escape)" dn: cn=\" # \+ \, \; \< = \> \\ DN Escape Characters,dc=example,dc=com objectClass: person objectClass: inetOrgPerson objectClass: organizationalPerson objectClass: top givenName: " # + , ; < = > \ uid: escape cn: " # + , ; < = > \ DN Escape Characters sn: DN Escape Characters mail: escape@example.com [4] Hence pyramid icons are associated with directory servers. [5] The root entry for the directory, technically the entry with DN "" (the empty string), is called the root DSE, and contains information about what the server supports, including the other base DNs it serves. [6] If the client does not bind explicitly, the server treats the client as an anonymous client. The client can also bind again on the same connection. [7] Renaming entire branches of entries can be a major operation for the directory, so avoid moving entire branches if you can. [8] LDAP has the object class extensibleObject, but its use should be the exception rather than the rule. ## Chapter 2. Administration Interfaces & Tools OpenDJ server software installs with a cross-platform, Java Swing-based Control Panel for many day-to-day tasks. OpenDJ server software also installs command-line tools for configuration and management tasks. This chapter is one of the few to include screen shots of the control panel. Most examples make use of the command-line tools. Once you understand the concepts, and how to perform a task using the command-line tools, you no doubt need no more than to know where to start in the Control Panel to accomplish what you set out to do. At a protocol level, administration tools and interfaces connect to servers through a different network port than that used to listen for traffic from other client applications. This chapter takes a quick look at the tools for managing directory services. ## 2.1. Control Panel OpenDJ Control Panel offers a graphical user interface for managing both local and remote servers. You choose the server to manage when you start the Control Panel. The Control Panel connects to the administration server port, making a secure LDAPS connection. Start OpenDJ Control Panel. • (Linux, Solaris) Run /path/to/opendj/bin/control-panel. • (Windows) Double-click C:\path\to\opendj\bat\control-panel.bat. • (Mac OS X) Double-click /path/to/opendj/bin/ControlPanel.app. When you login to OpenDJ Control Panel, you authenticate over LDAP. This means that if users can run the Control Panel, they can use it to manage a running server. Yet, to start and stop the server process through OpenDJ Control Panel, you must start the Control Panel on the system where OpenDJ runs, as the user who owns the OpenDJ server files (such as the user who installed OpenDJ). In other words, the OpenDJ Control Panel does not do remote process management. OpenDJ Control Panel displays key information about the server. Down the left side of OpenDJ Control Panel, notice what you can configure. Directory Data Directory data provisioning is typically not something you do by hand in most deployments. Usually entries are created, modified, and deleted through specific directory client applications. The Manage Entries window can be useful, however, both in the lab as you design and test directory data, and also if you modify individual ACIs or debug issues with particular entries. The Manage Entries window can check that your changes are valid before sending the request to the directory. Additionally, the Directory Data list makes it easy to create a new base DN, and then import user data for the new base DN from LDIF. You can also use the tools in the list to export user data to LDIF, and to backup and restore user data. Schema The Manage Schema window lets you browse and modify the rules that define how data is stored in the directory. You can add new schema definitions such as new attribute types and new object classes while the server is running, and the changes you make take effect immediately. Indexes The Manage Indexes window gives you a quick overview of all the indexes currently maintained for directory attributes. To protect your directory resources from being absorbed by costly searches on unindexed attributes, you may choose to keep the default behavior, preventing unindexed searches, instead adding indexes required by specific applications. (Notice that if the number of user data entries is smaller than the default resource limits, you can still perform what appear to be unindexed searches. That is because the dn2id index returns all user data entries without hitting a resource limit that would make the search unindexed.) OpenDJ Control Panel also allows you to verify and rebuild existing indexes, which you may have to do after an upgrade operation, or if you have reason to suspect index corruption. Monitoring The Monitoring list gives you windows to observe information about the system, the JVM used, and indications about how the cache is used, whether the work queue has been filling up, as well as details about the database. You can also view the numbers and types of requests arriving over the connection handlers, and the current tasks in progress as well. Runtime Options If you did not set appropriate JVM runtime options during the installation process, this is the list that allows you to do so through the Control Panel. ## 2.2. Command-Line Tools Before you try the examples in this guide, set your PATH to include the OpenDJ directory server tools. Where the tools are located depends on the operating system and on the packages used to install OpenDJ. Table 2.1. Paths To Administration Tools OpenDJ running on...OpenDJ installed from...Default path to tools... Apple Mac OS X, Linux distributions, Oracle SolarisWebStart, .zip/path/to/opendj/bin Linux distributions.deb, .rpm/opt/opendj/bin Microsoft WindowsWebStart, .zipC:\path\to\opendj\bat Oracle SolarisSVR4/usr/opendj/bin The setup, upgrade, and uninstall tools are located in the parent directory of the other tools, as these tools are not used for everyday administration. For example, if the path to most tools is /path/to/opendj/bin you can find these tools in /path/to/opendj. All OpenDJ command-line tools take the --help option. All commands call Java programs and therefore involve starting a JVM. The following list uses the UNIX names for the tools. On Windows all command-line tools have the extension .bat. backup Backup or schedule backup of directory data. base64 Encode and decode data in base64 format. Base64 encoding represents binary data in ASCII, and can be used to encode character strings in LDIF, for example. create-rc-script (UNIX) Generate a script you can use to start, stop, and restart the server either directly or at system boot and shutdown. Use create-rc-script -f script-file. dbtest Debug JE databases. dsconfig The dsconfig command is the primary command-line tool for viewing and editing OpenDJ configuration. When started without arguments, dsconfig prompts you for administration connection information. Once connected it presents you with a menu-driven interface to the server configuration. When you pass connection information, subcommands, and additional options to dsconfig, the command runs in script mode and so is not interactive. You can prepare dsconfig batch scripts by running the tool with the --commandFilePath option in interactive mode, then reading from the batch file with the --batchFile option in script mode. Batch files can be useful when you have many dsconfig commands to run and want to avoid starting the JVM and setting up a new connection for each command. In addition to the dsconfig reference that covers subcommands, the Configuration Reference covers the properties you can set using the dsconfig command. dsjavaproperties Apply changes you make to opendj/config/java.properties, which sets Java runtime options. dsreplication Configure data replication between directory servers to keep their contents in sync. encode-password Encode a clear text password according to one of the available storage schemes. export-ldif Export directory data to LDAP Data Interchange Format, a standard, portable, text-based representation of directory content. import-ldif Load LDIF content into the directory, overwriting existing data. ldapcompare Compare the attribute values you specify with those stored on entries in the directory. ldapdelete Delete one entry or an entire branch of subordinate entries in the directory. ldapmodify Modify the specified attribute values for the specified entries. Use the ldapmodify command with the -a option to add new entries. ldappasswordmodify Modify user passwords. ldapsearch Search a branch of directory data for entries matching the LDAP filter that you specify. ldif-diff Display differences between two LDIF files, with the resulting output having LDIF format. ldifmodify Similar to the ldapmodify command, modify specified attribute values for specified entries in an LDIF file. ldifsearch Similar to the ldapsearch command, search a branch of data in LDIF for entries matching the LDAP filter you specify. list-backends List backends and base DNs served by OpenDJ. make-ldif Generate directory data in LDIF, based on templates that define how the data should appear. The make-ldif command is designed to help you quickly generate test data that mimics data you expect to have in production, but without compromising private information. manage-account Lock and unlock user accounts, and view and manipulate password policy state information. manage-tasks View information about tasks scheduled to run in the server, and cancel specified tasks. rebuild-index Rebuild an index stored in a JE backend. restore Restore user data from backup. start-ds Start OpenDJ directory server. status Display information about the server. stop-ds Stop OpenDJ directory server. verify-index Verify that an index stored in a JE backend is not corrupt. windows-service (Windows only) Register OpenDJ as a Windows Service. ## Chapter 3. Managing Server Processes Using the OpenDJ Control Panel, you can start and stop local servers. You can also start and stop OpenDJ using command-line tools, and use the operating system's capabilities for starting OpenDJ at boot time. This chapter demonstrates how to start and stop server processes with command line tools and using operating system capabilities. This chapter also describes what OpenDJ directory server does during startup and shutdown, and how it recovers following an abrupt shutdown such as happens during a system crash or when you kill the server process using system tools. ## 3.1. Starting a Server Use one of the following techniques. • Use the start-ds command. $ start-ds

Alternatively, you can specify the --no-detach option to start the server in the foreground.

• (Linux) If OpenDJ directory server was installed from a .deb or .rpm package, then service management scripts were created at setup time.

Use the service opendj start command.

centos# service opendj start
Starting opendj (via systemctl):                           [  OK  ]
ubuntu$sudo service opendj start$Starting opendj: > SUCCESS.
• (UNIX) Create an RC script, and then use the script to start the server.

Unless you run OpenDJ as root, use the --userName userName option to specify the user who installed OpenDJ.

$sudo create-rc-script --outputFile /etc/init.d/opendj --userName mark$ sudo /etc/init.d/opendj start

For example, on Linux if you run OpenDJ as root, you can use the RC script to start the server at system boot, and stop the server at system shutdown.

$sudo update-rc.d opendj defaults update-rc.d: warning: /etc/init.d/opendj missing LSB information update-rc.d: see <http://wiki.debian.org/LSBInitScripts> Adding system startup for /etc/init.d/opendj ... /etc/rc0.d/K20opendj -> ../init.d/opendj /etc/rc1.d/K20opendj -> ../init.d/opendj /etc/rc6.d/K20opendj -> ../init.d/opendj /etc/rc2.d/S20opendj -> ../init.d/opendj /etc/rc3.d/S20opendj -> ../init.d/opendj /etc/rc4.d/S20opendj -> ../init.d/opendj /etc/rc5.d/S20opendj -> ../init.d/opendj • (Windows) Register OpenDJ as a Windows Service, and then manage the service through Windows administration tools. C:\path\to\opendj\bat> windows-service.bat --enableService By default OpenDJ saves a compressed version of the server configuration used on successful startup. This ensures that the server provides a "last known good" configuration, which can be used as a reference or copied into the active configuration if the server fails to start with the current active configuration. It is possible, though not usually recommended, to turn this behavior off by changing the global server setting save-config-on-successful-startup to false. ## 3.2. Stopping a Server Use one of the following techniques. • Use the stop-ds command. $ stop-ds
• (Linux) If OpenDJ directory server was installed from a .deb or .rpm package, then service management scripts were created at setup time.

Use the service opendj stop command.

centos# service opendj stop
Stopping opendj (via systemctl):                           [  OK  ]
ubuntu$sudo service opendj stop$Stopping opendj: ... > SUCCESS.
• (UNIX) Create an RC script, and then use the script to stop the server.

$sudo create-rc-script --outputFile /etc/init.d/opendj --userName mark$ sudo /etc/init.d/opendj stop
• (Windows) Register OpenDJ as a Windows Service, and then manage the service through Windows administration tools.

C:\path\to\opendj\bat> windows-service.bat --enableService

## 3.3. Restarting a Server

Use one of the following techniques.

• Use the stop-ds command.

$stop-ds --restart • (Linux) If OpenDJ directory server was installed from a .deb or .rpm package, then service management scripts were created at setup time. Use the service opendj restart command. centos# service opendj restart Restarting opendj (via systemctl): [ OK ] ubuntu$ sudo service opendj restart
$Stopping opendj: ... > SUCCESS.$Starting opendj: > SUCCESS.
• (UNIX) Create an RC script, and then use the script to stop the server.

$sudo create-rc-script --outputFile /etc/init.d/opendj --userName mark$ /etc/init.d/opendj restart
• (Windows) Register OpenDJ as a Windows Service, and then manage the service through Windows administration tools.

C:\path\to\opendj\bat> windows-service.bat --enableService

## 3.4. Server Recovery

OpenDJ tends to show resilience when restarting after a crash or after the server process is killed abruptly. OpenDJ might have to replay the last few entries in a transaction log. Generally OpenDJ returns to service quickly.

You can find Berkeley Java Edition database recovery messages in the database log file, such as /path/to/opendj/db/userRoot/je.info.0. The following shows two example messages from that log, the first written at the beginning of the recovery process, the second written at the end of the process.

111104 10:23:48:967 CONFIG [/path/to/opendj/db/userRoot]Recovery
underway, found end of log
...
111104 10:23:49:015 CONFIG [/path/to/opendj/db/userRoot]Recovery finished:
Recovery Info ...

What can take some time during server startup is preloading database content into memory when the server starts. Objects cached in memory do not survive a crash. By default, OpenDJ does not cache objects in memory before starting to accept client requests. You can however set a preload-time-limit for the database cache of your backend if you do want to load objects into the database cache before OpenDJ begins accepting client connections.

## Chapter 4. Importing & Exporting LDIF Data

LDAP Data Interchange Format provides a mechanism for representing directory data in text format. LDIF data is typically used to initialize directory databases, but also may be used to move data between different directories that cannot replicate directly, or even as an alternative backup format.

This chapter shows you how to import and export LDIF. This chapter also covers creating test data in LDIF format, and manipulating LDIF data with command-line tools.

## 4.1. Generating Test Data

When you install OpenDJ, you have the option of importing sample data generated during the installation. This procedure demonstrates how to generate LDIF using the make-ldif command.

Procedure 4.1. To Generate Test LDIF Data

The make-ldif command uses templates to provide sample data. Default templates are located in the OpenDJ/config/MakeLDIF/ directory. The example.template file can be used to create a suffix with entries of the type inetOrgPerson. You can do the equivalent in OpenDJ Control Panel (Directory Data > New Base DN... > Import Automatically Generated Example Data).

1. Write a file to act as the template for your generated LDIF.

The resulting test data template depends on what data you expect to encounter in production. Base your work on your knowledge of the production data, and on the sample template, OpenDJ/config/MakeLDIF/example.template, and associated data.

See make-ldif.template for reference information about template files.

2. Create additional data files for the content in your template to be selected randomly from a file, rather than generated by an expression.

Additional data files are located in the same directory as your template file.

3. Decide whether you want to generate the same test data each time you run the make-ldif command with your template.

If so, provide the same randomSeed integer each time you run the command.

4. Before generating a very large LDIF file, make sure you have enough space on disk.

5. Run the make-ldif command to generate your LDIF file.

$make-ldif --randomSeed 0 --templateFile /path/to/my.template --ldifFile /path/to/generated.ldif Processed 1000 entries Processed 2000 entries ... Processed 10000 entries LDIF processing complete. 10003 entries written ## 4.2. Importing & Exporting Data You can use the OpenDJ Control Panel to import data (Directory Data > Import LDIF...) and to export data (Directory Data > Export LDIF...). The following procedures demonstrate how to use the import-ldif and export-ldif commands. Procedure 4.2. To Import LDIF Data The most efficient method of importing LDIF data is to take the OpenDJ server offline. Alternatively, you can schedule a task to import the data while the server is online. 1. If you do not want to use the default userRoot backend, create a new JE backend for your data. See Section 4.4, “Creating a New Database Backend” for details. 2. The following example imports dc=example,dc=org data into the userRoot backend, overwriting existing data. • If you want to speed up the process—for example because you have millions of directory entries to import—first shut down the server, and then run the import-ldif command. $ stop-ds
$import-ldif --includeBranch dc=example,dc=org --backendID userRoot --ldifFile /path/to/generated.ldif • If not, schedule a task to import the data while online. $ import-ldif
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--includeBranch dc=example,dc=org
--backendID userRoot
--ldifFile /path/to/generated.ldif
--trustAll

Notice that the task is scheduled through communication over SSL on the administration port, by default 4444. You can schedule the import task to start at a particular time using the --start option.

The --trustAll option trusts all SSL certificates, such as a default self-signed certificate used for testing.

Procedure 4.3. To Export LDIF Data
• The following example exports dc=example,dc=org data from the userRoot backend.

• If you want to speed up export, first shut down the server, and then export data using the export-ldif command.

$stop-ds$ export-ldif
--includeBranch dc=example,dc=org
--backendID userRoot
--ldifFile /path/to/backup.ldif
• If not, schedule a task to export the data while online.

$export-ldif --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --includeBranch dc=example,dc=org --backendID userRoot --ldifFile /path/to/backup.ldif --start 20111221230000 --trustAll The --start 20111221230000 option tells OpenDJ to start the export at 11 PM on December 21, 2012. If OpenDJ is stopped at this time, then when you start OpenDJ again, the server attempts to perform the task after starting up. ## 4.3. Other Tools For Working With LDIF Data This section demonstrates the ldifsearch, ldifmodify, and ldif-diff tools. ### 4.3.1. Searching in LDIF With ldifsearch The ldifsearch command lets you search LDIF files in a similar way to how you search LDAP directories with the ldapsearch command. $ ldifsearch
--baseDN dc=example,dc=org
--ldifFile generated.ldif
"(sn=Grenier)"
mobile
dn: uid=user.4630,ou=People,dc=example,dc=org
mobile: +1 728 983 6669

The --ldifFile ldif-file option replaces the --hostname and --port options used to connect to an LDAP directory. Otherwise the command syntax and LDIF output is familiar to ldapsearch users.

### 4.3.2. Updating LDIF With ldifmodify

The ldifmodify command lets you apply changes to LDIF files, generating a new, changed version of the original file.

$cat changes.ldif dn: uid=user.0,ou=People,dc=example,dc=org changetype: modify replace: description description: This is the new description for Aaccf Amar. - replace: initials initials: AAA$ ldifmodify
--sourceLDIF generated.ldif
--changesLDIF changes.ldif
--targetLDIF new.ldif

Notice that the resulting new LDIF file is likely to be about the same size as the source LDIF file.

### 4.3.3. Comparing LDIF With ldif-diff

The ldif-diff command reports differences between two LDIF files in LDIF format.

$ldif-diff --sourceLDIF old.ldif --targetLDIF new.ldif dn: uid=user.0,ou=People,dc=example,dc=org changetype: modify add: initials initials: AAA - delete: initials initials: ASA - add: description description: This is the new description for Aaccf Amar. - delete: description description: This is the description for Aaccf Amar.  As the ldif-diff command reads both files into memory, constructing tree maps to perform the comparison, the command is designed to work with small files and fragments. The command can quickly run out of memory when calculating differences between large files. ## 4.4. Creating a New Database Backend OpenDJ stores your data in a backend. OpenDJ stores directory data in backends. Backends are what you backup and restore. By default, OpenDJ stores your data in a backend named userRoot. You can create new backends using the dsconfig command. The following example creates a local backend named testData. $ dsconfig create-backend --backend-name testData --type local-db

>>>> Configuring the "base-dn" property

Specifies the base DN(s) for the data that the backend handles.

A single backend may be responsible for one or more base DNs. Note that no
two backends may have the same base DN although one backend may have a
base DN that is below a base DN provided by another backend (similar to
the use of sub-suffixes in the Sun Java System Directory Server). If any
of the base DNs is subordinate to a base DN for another backend, then all
base DNs for that backend must be subordinate to that same base DN.

Syntax:  DN

Enter a value for the "base-dn" property: dc=example,dc=org

Enter another value for the "base-dn" property [continue]:

>>>> Configuring the "enabled" property

Indicates whether the backend is enabled in the server.

If a backend is not enabled, then its contents are not accessible when
processing operations.

Select a value for the "enabled" property:

1)  true
2)  false

?)  help
q)  quit

Enter choice: 1

>>>> Configure the properties of the Local DB Backend

Property           Value(s)
--------------------------------------
1)  backend-id         testData
2)  base-dn            "dc=example,dc=org"
3)  compact-encoding   true
4)  db-cache-percent   10
5)  db-cache-size      0 b
6)  db-directory       db
7)  enabled            true
8)  index-entry-limit  4000
9)  writability-mode   enabled

?)  help
f)  finish - create the new Local DB Backend
q)  quit

Enter choice [f]:

The Local DB Backend was created successfully

Alternatively, you can create a new backend in OpenDJ Control Panel (Directory Data > New Base DN... > Backend > New Backend: backend-name).

## 4.5. Deleting a Database Backend

You delete a database backend by using the dsconfig delete-backend command.

When you delete a database backend by using the dsconfig delete-backend command, OpenDJ does not actually remove the database files for two reasons. First, a mistake could potentially cause lots of data to be lost. Second, deleting a large database backend could cause severe service degradation due to a sudden increase in I/O load.

Instead, after you run the dsconfig delete-backend command you must also manually remove the database backend files.

If you do run the dsconfig delete-backend command by mistake and have not yet deleted the actual files, then you can recover from the mistake by creating the backend again, reconfiguring the indexes that were removed, and rebuilding the indexes as described in the section on Configuring & Rebuilding Indexes.

## Chapter 5. Configuring Connection Handlers

This chapter shows you how to configure OpenDJ directory server to listen for directory client requests, using connection handlers. You can view information about connection handlers in the OpenDJ Control Panel, and update the configuration using the dsconfig command.

## 5.1. LDAP Client Access

You configure LDAP client access by using the command-line tool dsconfig. By default you configure OpenDJ to listen for LDAP when you install.

The standard port number for LDAP client access is 389. If you install OpenDJ directory server as a user who can use port 389 and the port is not yet in use, then 389 is the default port number presented at installation time. If you install as a user who cannot use a port < 1024, then the default port number presented at installation time is 1389.

Procedure 5.1. To Change the LDAP Port Number
1. Change the port number using the dsconfig command.

$dsconfig set-connection-handler-prop --hostname opendj.example.com --port 4444 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --handler-name "LDAP Connection Handler" --set listen-port:11389 --trustAll --no-prompt This example changes the port number to 11389 in the configuration. 2. Restart the connection handler so the change takes effect. To restart the connection handler, you disable it, then enable it again. $ dsconfig
set-connection-handler-prop
--hostname opendj.example.com
--port 4444
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--handler-name "LDAP Connection Handler"
--set enabled:false
--trustAll
--no-prompt
$dsconfig set-connection-handler-prop --hostname opendj.example.com --port 4444 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --handler-name "LDAP Connection Handler" --set enabled:true --trustAll --no-prompt ## 5.2. Preparing For Secure Communications One common way to protect connections between OpenDJ and client applications involves using StartTLS for LDAP or LDAPS to secure connections. OpenDJ and client applications use X.509 digital certificates to set up secure connections. Both OpenDJ and client applications check that certificates are signed by a trusted party before accepting them. Merely setting up a secure connection therefore involves a sort of authentication using certificates. If either OpenDJ or the client application cannot trust the peer certificate, then the attempt to set up a secure connection must fail. By default OpenDJ client tools prompt you if they do not recognize the server certificate. Other clients might not prompt you. OpenDJ server has no one to prompt when a client presents a certificate that cannot be trusted, so it must simply refuse to set up the connection.[9] In other words, it is important for both OpenDJ and client applications to be able to verify that peer certificates exchanged have been signed by a trusted party. In practice this means that both OpenDJ and client applications must put the certificates that were used to sign each others' certificates in their respective trust stores. Conventionally, certificates are therefore signed by a Certificate Authority (CA). A CA is trusted to sign other certificates. The Java runtime environment for example comes with a trust store holding certificates from many well-known CAs.[10] If your client uses a valid certificate signed by one of these CAs, then OpenDJ can verify the certificate without additional configuration, because OpenDJ can find the CA certificate in the Java CA certificate trust store. Likewise if you set up StartTLS or LDAPS in OpenDJ using a valid certificate signed by one of these CAs, then many client applications can verify the OpenDJ server certificate without further configuration. In summary, if you need a certificate to be recognized automatically, get the certificate signed by a well-known CA. You can, however, choose to have your certificates signed some other way. You can set up your own CA. You can use a CA whose signing certificate is not widely distributed. You can also use self-signed certificates. In each case, you must add the signing certificates into the trust store of each peer making secure connections. For OpenDJ directory server, you can choose to import your own CA-signed certificate as part of the installation process, or later using command-line tools. Alternatively, you can let the OpenDJ installation program create a self-signed certificate as part of the OpenDJ installation process. In addition, you can add a signing certificate to the OpenDJ trust store using the Java keytool command. The following example shows the keytool command to add a client application's binary format, self-signed certificate to the OpenDJ trust store (assuming OpenDJ is already configured to use secure connections). This enables OpenDJ to recognize the self-signed client application certificate. (By definition a self-signed certificate is itself the signing certificate. Notice that the Owner and the Issuer are the same.) $ keytool
-import
-alias myapp-cert
-file myapp-cert.crt
-keystore /path/to/opendj/config/truststore
-storepass cat /path/to/opendj/config/keystore.pin
Owner: CN=My App, OU=Apps, DC=example, DC=com
Issuer: CN=My App, OU=Apps, DC=example, DC=com
Serial number: 5ae2277
Valid from: Fri Jan 18 18:27:09 CET 2013 until: Thu Jan 13 18:27:09 CET 2033
Certificate fingerprints:
MD5:  48:AC:F9:13:11:E0:AB:C4:65:A2:83:9E:DB:FE:0C:37
SHA1: F9:61:54:37:AA:C1:BC:92:45:07:64:4B:23:6C:BC:C9:CD:1D:44:0F
SHA256: 2D:B1:58:CD:33:40:E9:ED:...:EA:C9:FF:6A:19:93:FE:E4:84:E3
Signature algorithm name: SHA256withRSA
Version: 3

Extensions:

#1: ObjectId: 2.5.29.14 Criticality=false
SubjectKeyIdentifier [
KeyIdentifier [
0000: 54 C0 C5 9C 73 37 85 4B   F2 3B D3 37 FD 45 0A AB  T...s7.K.;.7.E..
0010: C9 6B 32 95                                        .k2.
]
]

Trust this certificate? [no]:  yes
Certificate was added to keystore

When working with a certificate in printable encoding format (.pem) rather than binary format, use the -rfc option, too.

Restart OpenDJ after adding certificates to the trust store to make sure that OpenDJ reads the updated trust store file.

On the client side, if your applications are also Java applications, then you can also import the OpenDJ signing certificate into the trust store for the applications using the keytool command.

The following example shows the keytool command to export the OpenDJ self-signed certificate in binary format.

$keytool -export -alias server-cert -file server-cert.crt -keystore /path/to/opendj/config/keystore -storepass cat /path/to/opendj/config/keystore.pin Certificate stored in file <server-cert.crt> Importing the server certificate is similar to importing the client certificate, as shown above. The following sections describe how to get and install certificates for OpenDJ directory server on the command line, for use when setting up StartTLS or LDAPS. Procedure 5.2. To Request and Install a CA-Signed Certificate First you create a server certificate in a Java Key Store. Next you issue a signing request to the CA, and get the CA-signed certificate as a reply. Then you set up the Key Manager Provider and Trust Manager Provider to rely on your new server certificate stored in the OpenDJ key store. 1. Generate the server certificate by using the Java keytool command. The CN attribute value is the FQDN for OpenDJ directory server, which you can see under Server Details in the OpenDJ Control Panel. $ keytool
-genkey
-alias server-cert
-keyalg rsa
-dname "CN=opendj.example.com,O=Example Corp,C=FR"
-keystore /path/to/opendj/config/keystore
-storepass changeit
-keypass changeit

### Note

Notice that the -storepass and -keypass options take identical password arguments. OpenDJ requires that you use the same password to protect both the keystore and also the private key.

2. Create a certificate signing request file for the certificate you generated.

$keytool -certreq -alias server-cert -keystore /path/to/opendj/config/keystore -storepass changeit -file server-cert.csr 3. Have the CA sign the request (server-cert.csr). See the instructions from your CA on how to provide the request. The CA returns the signed certificate. 4. If you have set up your own CA and signed the certificate, or are using a CA whose signing certificate is not included in the Java runtime environment, import the CA certificate into the key store so that it can be trusted. Otherwise, when you import the signed certificate in the reply from the (unknown) CA, keytool fails to import the signed certificate with the message keytool error: java.lang.Exception: Failed to establish chain from reply. The following example illustrates import of a CA certificate created with the openssl command. See the openssl documentation for instructions on creating CAs and on signing other certificates with the CA you created. $ keytool
-import
-keystore /path/to/opendj/config/keystore
-file ca.crt
-alias ca-cert
-storepass changeit
Serial number: d4586ea05c878b0c
Valid from: Tue Jan 29 09:30:31 CET 2013 until: Mon Jan 24 09:30:31 CET 2033
Certificate fingerprints:
MD5:  8A:83:61:9B:E7:18:A2:21:CE:92:94:96:59:68:60:FA
SHA1: 01:99:18:38:3A:57:D7:92:7B:D6:03:8C:7B:E4:1D:37:45:0E:29:DA
SHA256: 5D:20:F1:86:CC:CD:64:50:...:DF:15:43:07:69:44:00:FB:36:CF
Signature algorithm name: SHA1withRSA
Version: 3

Extensions:

#1: ObjectId: 2.5.29.35 Criticality=false
AuthorityKeyIdentifier [
KeyIdentifier [
0000: 30 07 67 7D 1F 09 B6 E6   90 85 95 58 94 37 FD 31  0.g........X.7.1
0010: 03 D4 56 7B                                        ..V.
]
SerialNumber: [    d4586ea0 5c878b0c]
]

#2: ObjectId: 2.5.29.19 Criticality=false
BasicConstraints:[
CA:true
PathLen:2147483647
]

#3: ObjectId: 2.5.29.14 Criticality=false
SubjectKeyIdentifier [
KeyIdentifier [
0000: 30 07 67 7D 1F 09 B6 E6   90 85 95 58 94 37 FD 31  0.g........X.7.1
0010: 03 D4 56 7B                                        ..V.
]
]

Trust this certificate? [no]:  yes
Certificate was added to keystore
5. Import the signed certificate from the CA reply into the keystore where you generated the server certificate.

In this example the certificate from the reply is ~/Downloads/server-cert.crt.

$keytool -import -trustcacerts -alias server-cert -file ~/Downloads/server-cert.crt -keystore /path/to/opendj/config/keystore -storepass changeit -keypass changeit Certificate reply was installed in keystore 6. Configure the File Based Key Manager Provider for JKS to use the file name and key store PIN that you set up with the keytool command. $ dsconfig
set-key-manager-provider-prop
--hostname opendj.example.com
--port 4444
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--provider-name JKS
--set enabled:true
--set key-store-pin:changeit
--remove key-store-pin-file:config/keystore.pin
--trustAll
--no-prompt
7. Configure the File Based Trust Manager Provider for JKS to use the key store and PIN as well.

$dsconfig set-trust-manager-provider-prop --hostname opendj.example.com --port 4444 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --provider-name JKS --set enabled:true --set trust-store-file:config/keystore --set trust-store-pin:changeit --trustAll --no-prompt At this point, OpenDJ directory server can use your new CA-signed certificate, for example for StartTLS and LDAPS connection handlers. 8. If you use a CA certificate that is not known to clients, such as a CA that you set up yourself rather than a well-known CA whose certificate is included with the client system, import the CA certificate into the client application trust store. Otherwise the client application cannot trust the signature on the OpenDJ CA-signed server certificate. Procedure 5.3. To Create & Install a Self-Signed Certificate If you choose to configure LDAP Secure Access when setting up OpenDJ directory server, the setup program generates a key pair in the Java Key Store /path/to/opendj/config/keystore, and self-signs the public key certificate, which has the alias server-cert. The password for the key store and the private key is stored in clear text in the file /path/to/opendj/config/keystore.pin. If you want to secure communications, but did not chose to configure LDAP Secure Access at setup time, this procedure can help. The following steps explain how to create and install a key pair with a self-signed certificate in preparation to configure LDAPS or HTTPS. First you create a key pair in a new Java Key Store, and then self-sign the certificate. Next, you set up the Key Manager Provider and Trust Manager Provider to access the new server certificate in the new key store. If instead you want to replace the existing server key pair with self-signed certificate, then first use keytool -delete -alias server-cert to delete the existing keys before you generate a new key pair with the same alias. You can also either reuse the existing password in keystore.pin, or use a new password as shown in the steps below. 1. Generate the server certificate using the Java keytool command. $ keytool
-genkey
-alias server-cert
-keyalg rsa
-dname "CN=opendj.example.com,O=Example Corp,C=FR"
-keystore /path/to/opendj/config/keystore
-storepass changeit
-keypass changeit

In this example, OpenDJ is running on a system with fully qualified host name opendj.example.com. The Java Key Store (JKS) is created in the config directory where OpenDJ is installed, which is the default value for JKS.

### Note

Notice that the -storepass and -keypass options take identical password arguments. OpenDJ requires that you use the same password to protect both the key store and also the private key.

Keep track of the password provided to the -storepass and -keypass options.

2. Self-sign the server certificate.

$keytool -selfcert -alias server-cert -keystore /path/to/opendj/config/keystore -storepass changeit 3. Configure the File Based Key Manager Provider for JKS to access the Java Key Store with key store/private key password. In this example, the alias is server-cert and the password is changeit. If you are replacing a key pair with a self-signed certificate, reusing the server-cert alias and password stored in keystore.pin, then you can skip this step. $ echo changeit > /path/to/opendj/config/keystore.pin
$chmod 600 /path/to/opendj/config/keystore.pin$ dsconfig
set-key-manager-provider-prop
--hostname opendj.example.com
--port 4444
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--provider-name JKS
--set enabled:true
--set key-store-file:config/keystore
--set key-store-pin-file:config/keystore.pin
--trustAll
--no-prompt
4. Configure the File Based Trust Manager Provider for JKS to use the key store and PIN as well.

If you skipped the previous step, you can also skip this step.

$dsconfig set-trust-manager-provider-prop --hostname opendj.example.com --port 4444 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --provider-name JKS --set enabled:true --set trust-store-file:config/keystore --set trust-store-pin-file:config/keystore.pin --trustAll --no-prompt At this point, OpenDJ directory server can use your new self-signed certificate, for example for StartTLS and LDAPS or HTTPS connection handlers. ## 5.3. LDAP Client Access With Transport Layer Security StartTLS (Transport Layer Security) negotiations start on the unsecure LDAP port, and then protect communication with the client. You can opt to configure StartTLS during installation, or later using the dsconfig command. Procedure 5.4. To Enable StartTLS on the LDAP Port 1. Make sure you have a server certificate installed. $ keytool
-list
-alias server-cert
-keystore /path/to/opendj/config/keystore
-storepass cat /path/to/opendj/config/keystore.pin
server-cert, Jun 17, 2013, PrivateKeyEntry,
Certificate fingerprint (SHA1): 92:B7:4C:4F:2E:24:...:EB:7C:22:3F

2. Activate StartTLS on the current LDAP port.

$dsconfig set-connection-handler-prop --hostname opendj.example.com --port 4444 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --handler-name "LDAP Connection Handler" --set allow-start-tls:true --set key-manager-provider:JKS --set trust-manager-provider:JKS --trustAll --no-prompt The change takes effect. No need to restart the server. ## 5.4. LDAP Client Access Over SSL You configure LDAPS (LDAP/SSL) client access by using the command-line tool dsconfig. You can opt to configure LDAPS access when you install. The standard port number for LDAPS client access is 636. If you install OpenDJ directory server as a user who can use port 636 and the port is not yet in use, then 636 is the default port number presented at installation time. If you install as a user who cannot use a port < 1024, then the default port number presented at installation time is 1636. Procedure 5.5. To Set Up LDAPS Access 1. Make sure you have a server certificate installed. $ keytool
-list
-alias server-cert
-keystore /path/to/opendj/config/keystore
-storepass cat /path/to/opendj/config/keystore.pin
server-cert, Jun 17, 2013, PrivateKeyEntry,
Certificate fingerprint (SHA1): 92:B7:4C:4F:2E:24:...:EB:7C:22:3F

2. Configure the server to activate LDAPS access.

$dsconfig set-connection-handler-prop --hostname opendj.example.com --port 4444 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --handler-name "LDAPS Connection Handler" --set listen-port:1636 --set enabled:true --set use-ssl:true --trustAll --no-prompt This example changes the port number to 1636 in the configuration. Procedure 5.6. To Change the LDAPS Port Number 1. Change the port number using the dsconfig command. $ dsconfig
set-connection-handler-prop
--hostname opendj.example.com
--port 4444
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--handler-name "LDAPS Connection Handler"
--set listen-port:11636
--trustAll
--no-prompt

This example changes the port number to 11636 in the configuration.

2. Restart the connection handler so the change takes effect.

To restart the connection handler, you disable it, then enable it again.

$dsconfig set-connection-handler-prop --hostname opendj.example.com --port 4444 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --handler-name "LDAPS Connection Handler" --set enabled:false --trustAll --no-prompt$ dsconfig
set-connection-handler-prop
--hostname opendj.example.com
--port 4444
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--handler-name "LDAPS Connection Handler"
--set enabled:true
--trustAll
--no-prompt

## 5.5. Restricting Client Access

Using the OpenDJ directory server global configuration properties, you can add global restrictions on how clients access the server. These settings are per server, and so much be set independently on each server in replication topology.

These global settings are fairly coarse-grained. For a full discussion of the rich set of administrative privileges and fine-grained access control instructions that OpenDJ supports, see the chapter on Configuring Privileges & Access Control.

Consider the following global configuration settings.

bind-with-dn-requires-password

Whether the directory server should reject any simple bind request that contains a DN but no password. Default: true

To change this setting use the following command.

$dsconfig set-global-configuration-prop --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --set bind-with-dn-requires-password:false --no-prompt max-allowed-client-connections Restricts the number of concurrent client connections to the directory server. Default: 0, meaning no limit is set To set a limit of 32768 use the following command. $ dsconfig
set-global-configuration-prop
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--set max-allowed-client-connections:32768
--no-prompt
reject-unauthenticated-requests

Rejects any request (other than bind or StartTLS requests) received from a client that has not yet been authenticated, whose last authentication attempt was unsuccessful, or whose last authentication attempt used anonymous authentication. Default: false

To shut down anonymous binds use the following command.

$dsconfig set-global-configuration-prop --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --set reject-unauthenticated-requests:true --no-prompt return-bind-error-messages Does not restrict access, but by default prevents OpenDJ directory server from returning extra information about why a bind failed, as that information could be used by an attacker. Instead, the information is written to the server errors log. Default: false To have OpenDJ return additional information about why a bind failed use the following command. $ dsconfig
set-global-configuration-prop
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--set return-bind-error-messages:true
--no-prompt

## 5.6. TLS Protocols & Cipher Suites

By default OpenDJ supports the SSL and TLS protocols and the cipher suites supported by the underlying Java virtual machine. For details see the documentation for the Java virtual machine in which you run OpenDJ. For Oracle Java, see the Java Cryptography Architecture Oracle Providers Documentation for the The SunJSSE Provider.

To list the available protocols and cipher suites, read the supportedTLSProtocols and supportedTLSCiphers attributes of the root DSE. Install unlimited strength Java cryptography extensions for stronger ciphers.

$ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN "" --searchScope base "(objectclass=*)" supportedTLSCiphers supportedTLSProtocols dn: supportedTLSCiphers: TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256 supportedTLSCiphers: TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256 supportedTLSCiphers: TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256 supportedTLSCiphers: TLS_ECDH_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256 supportedTLSCiphers: TLS_ECDH_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256 supportedTLSCiphers: TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256 supportedTLSCiphers: TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256 supportedTLSCiphers: TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA supportedTLSCiphers: TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA supportedTLSCiphers: TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA supportedTLSCiphers: TLS_ECDH_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA supportedTLSCiphers: TLS_ECDH_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA supportedTLSCiphers: TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA supportedTLSCiphers: TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA supportedTLSCiphers: TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA supportedTLSCiphers: TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA supportedTLSCiphers: SSL_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA supportedTLSCiphers: TLS_ECDH_ECDSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA supportedTLSCiphers: TLS_ECDH_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA supportedTLSCiphers: TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA supportedTLSCiphers: TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA supportedTLSCiphers: SSL_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA supportedTLSCiphers: TLS_ECDH_ECDSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA supportedTLSCiphers: TLS_ECDH_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA supportedTLSCiphers: SSL_DHE_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA supportedTLSCiphers: SSL_DHE_DSS_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA supportedTLSCiphers: SSL_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_MD5 supportedTLSCiphers: TLS_EMPTY_RENEGOTIATION_INFO_SCSV supportedTLSProtocols: SSLv2Hello supportedTLSProtocols: SSLv3 supportedTLSProtocols: TLSv1 supportedTLSProtocols: TLSv1.1 supportedTLSProtocols: TLSv1.2  You can restrict the list of protocols and cipher suites used by setting the ssl-protocol and ssl-cipher-suite connection handler properties to include only the protocols or cipher suites you want. For example, to restrict the cipher suites to TLS_EMPTY_RENEGOTIATION_INFO_SCSV and TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA use the dsconfig set-connection-handler-prop command as shown in the following example. $ dsconfig
set-connection-handler-prop
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--handler-name "LDAPS Connection Handler"
--no-prompt
--trustAll

## 5.7. RESTful Client Access

OpenDJ offers two ways to give RESTful client applications HTTP access to directory data as JSON resources.

1. Enable the listener on OpenDJ directory server to respond to REST requests.

With this approach, you do not need to install additional software.

2. Configure the external REST LDAP gateway Servlet to access your directory service.

With this approach, you must install the gateway separately.

OpenDJ directory server has a handler for HTTP connections, where it exposes the RESTful API demonstrated in the chapter on Performing RESTful Operations. The HTTP connection handler is not enabled by default.

You configure the mapping between JSON resources and LDAP entries by editing the configuration file for the HTTP connection handler, by default /path/to/opendj/config/http-config.json. The configuration is described in the appendix, REST LDAP Configuration. The default mapping works out of the box with Example.com data generated as part of the setup process and with Example.ldif.

1. Enable the connection handler.

$dsconfig set-connection-handler-prop --hostname opendj.example.com --port 4444 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --handler-name "HTTP Connection Handler" --set enabled:true --no-prompt --trustAll 2. Enable the HTTP access log. $ dsconfig
set-log-publisher-prop
--hostname opendj.example.com
--port 4444
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--publisher-name "File-Based HTTP Access Logger"
--set enabled:true
--no-prompt
--trustAll

This enables the HTTP access log, opendj/logs/http-access. For details on the format of the HTTP access log, see the section on Server Logs.

The HTTP connection handler paths start by default at the root context, as shown in the following example.

$curl http://bjensen:hifalutin@opendj.example.com:8080/users/bjensen ?_prettyPrint=true { "_rev" : "00000000315fb731", "schemas" : [ "urn:scim:schemas:core:1.0" ], "manager" : [ { "_id" : "trigden", "displayName" : "Torrey Rigden" } ], "contactInformation" : { "telephoneNumber" : "+1 408 555 1862", "emailAddress" : "bjensen@example.com" }, "_id" : "bjensen", "name" : { "familyName" : "Jensen", "givenName" : "Barbara" }, "userName" : "bjensen@example.com", "displayName" : "Barbara Jensen" } 4. If necessary, change the connection handler configuration using the dsconfig command. The following example shows how to set the port to 8443, and to configure the connection handler to do SSL (using the default server certificate). If you did not generate a default, self-signed certificate when installing OpenDJ directory server see the instructions, To Create & Install a Self-Signed Certificate, and more generally the section on Preparing For Secure Communications for additional instructions including how to import a CA-signed certificate. $ dsconfig
set-trust-manager-provider-prop
--hostname opendj.example.com
--port 4444
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--provider-name "Blind Trust"
--set enabled:true
--no-prompt
--trustAll
$dsconfig set-connection-handler-prop --hostname opendj.example.com --port 4444 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --handler-name "HTTP Connection Handler" --set listen-port:8443 --set use-ssl:true --set key-manager-provider:JKS --set trust-manager-provider:"Blind Trust" --no-prompt --trustAll$ stop-ds --restart
Stopping Server...
.... The Directory Server has started successfully
$keytool -export -rfc -alias server-cert -keystore /path/to/opendj/config/keystore -storepass cat /path/to/opendj/config/keystore.pin -file server-cert.pem Certificate stored in file <server-cert.pem>$ curl
--cacert server-cert.pem
--user bjensen:hifalutin
https://opendj.example.com:8443/users/bjensen?_prettyPrint=true
{
"_rev" : "0000000018c8b685",
"schemas" : [ "urn:scim:schemas:core:1.0" ],
"contactInformation" : {
"telephoneNumber" : "+1 408 555 1862",
},
"_id" : "bjensen",
"name" : {
"familyName" : "Jensen",
"givenName" : "Barbara"
},
"displayName" : "Barbara Jensen",
"manager" : [ {
"_id" : "trigden",
"displayName" : "Torrey Rigden"
} ]
}
Procedure 5.8. To Set Up OpenDJ REST LDAP Gateway

Follow these steps to set up OpenDJ REST LDAP gateway Servlet to access your directory service.

1. Download and install the gateway as described in To Install OpenDJ REST LDAP Gateway.

2. Adjust the configuration for your directory service as described in REST LDAP Configuration.

## 5.8. DSML Client Access

Directory Services Markup Language (DSML) client access is implemented as a servlet that runs in a web application container.

You configure DSML client access by editing the WEB-INF/web.xml after you deploy the web application. In particular, you must at least set the ldap.host and ldap.port parameters if they differ from the default values, which are localhost and 389.

The list of DSML configuration parameters, including those that are optional, consists of the following.

ldap.host

Required parameter indicating the host name of the underlying directory server. Default: localhost.

ldap.port

Required parameter indicating the LDAP port of the underlying directory server. Default: 389.

ldap.userdn

Optional parameter specifying the DN used by the DSML gateway to bind to the underlying directory server. Not used by default.

ldap.userpassword

Optional parameter specifying the password used by the DSML gateway to bind to the underlying directory server. Not used by default.

ldap.authzidtypeisid

This parameter can help you set up the DSML gateway to do HTTP Basic Access Authentication, given the appropriate mapping between the user ID, and the user's entry in the directory.

Required boolean parameter specifying whether the HTTP Authorization header field's Basic credentials in the request hold a plain ID, rather than a DN. If set to true, then the gateway performs an LDAP SASL bind using SASL plain, enabled by default in OpenDJ to look for an exact match between a uid value and the plain ID value from the header. In other words, if the plain ID is bjensen, and that corresponds in the directory server to Babs Jensen's entry with DN uid=bjensen,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com, then the bind happens as Babs Jensen. Note also that you can configure OpenDJ identity mappers for scenarios that use a different attribute than uid, such as the mail attribute.

Default: false

ldap.usessl

Required parameter indicating whether ldap.port points to a port listening for LDAPS (LDAP/SSL) traffic. Default: false.

ldap.usestarttls

Required parameter indicating whether to use StartTLS to connect to the specified ldap.port. Default: false.

ldap.trustall

Required parameter indicating whether blindly to trust all certificates presented to the DSML gateway when using secure connections (LDAPS or StartTLS). Default: false.

ldap.truststore.path

Optional parameter indicating the trust store used to verify certificates when using secure connections. If you want to connect using LDAPS or StartTLS, and do not want the gateway blindly to trust all certificates, then you must set up a trust store. Not used by default.

ldap.truststore.password

Optional parameter indicating the trust store password. If you set up and configure a trust store, then you need to set this as well. Not used by default.

The DSML servlet translates between DSML and LDAP, and passes requests to the directory server. For initial testing purposes, you might try JXplorer, where DSML Service: /webapp-dir/DSMLServlet. Here, webapp-dir refers to the name of the directory in which you unpacked the DSML .war file.

JXplorer accessing OpenDJ through DSML

## 5.9. JMX Client Access

You configure Java Management Extensions (JMX) client access by using the command-line tool, dsconfig.

Procedure 5.9. To Set Up JMX Access
1. Configure the server to activate JMX access.

$dsconfig set-connection-handler-prop --hostname opendj.example.com --port 4444 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --handler-name "JMX Connection Handler" --set enabled:true --trustAll --no-prompt This example uses the default port number, 1689. 2. Restart the server so the change takes effect. $ stop-ds --restart

After you set up OpenDJ directory server to listen for JMX connections, you must assign privileges in order to allow a user to connect over protocol.

1. Assign the privileges, jmx-notify, jmx-read, and jmx-write as necessary to the user who connects over JMX.

See the section on Configuring Privileges for details.

2. Connect using the service URI, user name, and password.

Service URI

Full URI to the service including the hostname or IP address and port number for JMX where OpenDJ directory server listens for connections. For example, if the server IP is 192.168.0.10 and you configured OpenDJ to listen for JMX connections on port 1689, then the service URI is service:jmx:rmi:///jndi/rmi://192.168.0.10:1689/org.opends.server.protocols.jmx.client-unknown.

User name

The full DN of the user with privileges to connect over JMX such as uid=kvaughan,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com.

The bind password for the user.

## 5.10. LDIF File Access

The LDIF connection handler lets you make changes to directory data by placing LDIF in a file system directory that OpenDJ server regularly polls for changes. The LDIF, once consumed, is deleted.

You configure LDIF file access by using the command-line tool dsconfig.

Procedure 5.11. To Set Up LDIF File Access
1. Activate LDIF file access.

$dsconfig set-connection-handler-prop --hostname opendj.example.com --port 4444 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --handler-name "LDIF Connection Handler" --set enabled:true --trustAll --no-prompt The change takes effect immediately. 2. Add the directory where you put LDIF to be processed. $ mkdir /path/to/opendj/config/auto-process-ldif

This example uses the default value of the ldif-directory property for the LDIF connection handler.

## 5.11. SNMP Access

For instructions on setting up the SNMP Connection Handler, see the section, SNMP-Based Monitoring.

[9] Unless you use the Blind Trust Manager Provider, which is recommended only for test purposes.

[10] $JAVA_HOME/jre/lib/security/cacerts holds the CA certificates. To read the full list, use the following command. $ keytool
-list
-v
-keystore $JAVA_HOME/jre/lib/security/cacerts -storepass changeit ## Chapter 6. Configuring Privileges & Access Control OpenDJ supports two mechanisms to protect access to the directory, access control instructions and privileges. Access control instructions apply to directory data, providing fine-grained control over what a user or group member is authorized to do in terms of LDAP operations. Most access control instructions specify scopes (targets) to which they apply such that an administrative user who has all access to dc=example,dc=com need not have any access to dc=example,dc=org. Privileges control the administrative tasks that users can perform, such as bypassing the access control mechanism, performing backup and restore operations, making changes to the configuration, and so forth. Privileges are implemented independently from access control. By default, privileges restrict administrative access to directory root users, though any user can be assigned a privilege. Privileges apply to a directory server, and do not have a scope. Some operations require both privileges and also access control instructions. For example, in order to reset user's passwords, an administrator needs both the password-reset privilege and also access control to write userPassword values on the user entries. By combining an access control instruction with a privilege, you can effectively restrict the scope of that privilege to a particular branch of the Directory Information Tree. This chapter covers both access control instructions and privileges, demonstrating how to configure both. ## 6.1. About Access Control Instructions OpenDJ directory server access control instructions (ACIs) exist as operational aci attribute values on directory entries, and as global ACIs stored in the configuration. ACIs apply to a scope defined in the instruction, and set permissions that depend on what operation is requested, who requested the operation, and how the client connected to the server. For example, the ACIs on the following entry allow anonymous read access to all attributes except passwords, and allow read-write access for directory administrators under dc=example,dc=com. dn: dc=example,dc=com objectClass: domain objectClass: top dc: example aci: (target ="ldap:///dc=example,dc=com")(targetattr != "userPassword")(version 3.0;acl "Anonymous read-search access"; allow (read, search, compare)(userdn = "ldap:///anyone");) aci: (target="ldap:///dc=example,dc=com") (targetattr = "*")(version 3.0; acl "allow all Admin group"; allow(all) groupdn = "ldap:///cn=Directory Administrators,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com";)  OpenDJ directory server's default behavior is that no access is allowed unless it is specifically granted by an access control instruction. In addition privileges assigned to certain users such as cn=Directory Manager allow them to bypass access control checks. OpenDJ directory server provides several global ACIs out of the box to facilitate evaluation while maintaining a reasonable security policy. By default users are allow to read the root DSE, to read the schema, to use certain controls and extended operations, to modify their own entries, to bind, and so forth. Global ACIs are defined on the access control handler, and apply to the entire directory server. You must adjust the default global ACIs to match the security policies for your organization, for example to restrict anonymous access. ACI attribute values use a specific language described in this section. Although ACI attribute values can become difficult to read in LDIF, the basic syntax is simple. targets(version 3.0;acl "name";permissions subjects;) The following list briefly explains the variables in the syntax above. targets The targets specifies entries, attributes, controls, and extended operations to which the ACI applies. To include multiple targets, enclose each individual target in parentheses, (). When you specify multiple targets, all targets must match for the ACI to apply (AND). name Supplies a human-readable description of what the ACI does. permissions Defines which actions to allow, and which to deny. Paired with subjects. subjects Identify clients to which the ACI applies depending on who connected, and when, where, and how they connected. Paired with permissions. Separate multiple pairs of permissions subjects definitions with semicolons, ;. When you specify multiple permissions-subjects pairs, at least one must match (OR). ### 6.1.1. ACI Targets The seven types of ACI targets identify the objects to which the ACI applies. (target = "ldap:///DN"), (target != "ldap:///DN") Sets the scope to the entry with distinguished name DN, and to child entries. You can use asterisks, *, to replace attribute types, attribute values, and entire DN components. In other words, the following specification targets both uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com and also cn=Frank Zappa,ou=Musicians,dc=example,dc=com. (target = "ldap:///*=*,*,dc=example,dc=com") The DN must be in the subtree of the entry on which the ACI is defined. If you do not specify target, then the entry holding this ACI will be affected. If targetscope is also omitted, then this entry and all subordinates will be affected. (targetattr = "attr-list"), (targetattr != "attr-list") Replace attr-list with a list of attribute type names, such as userPassword, separating multiple attribute type names with ||. This specification affects the entry where the ACI is located, or the entries specified by other targets in the ACI. You can use an asterisk, *, to specify all user attributes, although you will see better performance when explicitly including or excluding attribute types needed. You can use a plus, +, to specify all operational attributes. Note that a negated attr-list of operational attributes will only match other operational attributes and never any user attributes, and vice-versa. If you do not include this target specification, then by default no attributes are affected by the ACI. (targetfilter = "ldap-filter"), (targetfilter != "ldap-filter") Sets the scope to match the ldap-filter dynamically, as in an LDAP search. The ldap-filter can be any valid LDAP filter. (targattrfilters = "expression"), (targattrfilters != "expression") Use this target specification when managing changes made to particular attributes. Here expression takes one of the following forms. Separate expressions with semicolons, ;. op=attr1:filter1[&& attr2:filter2 …][;op=attr3:filter3[&& attr4:filter4 …] …] Here op can be either add for operations creating attributes, or del for operations removing them. Replace attr with an attribute type. Replace filter with an LDAP filter that corresponds to the attr attribute type. (targetscope = "base|onelevel|subtree|subordinate") Here base refers to the entry where the ACI is defined, onelevel to immediate children, subtree to the base entry and all children, and subordinate to all children only. If you do not specify targetscope, then the default is subtree. (targetcontrol = "OID"), (targetcontrol != "OID") Replace OID with the object identifier for the LDAP control to target. Separate multiple OIDs with ||. This target cannot be restricted to a specific subtree by combining it with another target. (extop = "OID"), (extop != "OID") Replace OID with the object identifier for the extended operation to target. Separate multiple OIDs with ||. This target cannot be restricted to a specific subtree by combining it with another target. ### 6.1.2. ACI Permissions ACI permission definitions take one of the following forms. allow(action[, action …]) deny(action[, action …]) ### Tip Although deny is supported, avoid restricting permissions by using deny. Instead, explicitly allow access only where needed. What looks harmless and simple in your lab examples can grow difficult to maintain in a real-world deployment with nested ACIs. Replace action with one of the following. add Entry creation, as for an LDAP add operation all All permissions, except export, import, proxy compare Attribute value comparison, as for an LDAP compare operation delete Entry deletion, as for an LDAP delete operation export Entry export during a modify DN operation. Despite the name, this action is unrelated to LDIF export operations. import Entry import during a modify DN operation. Despite the name, this action is unrelated to LDIF import operations. proxy Access the ACI target using the rights of another user read Read entries and attributes search Search the ACI targets. Needs to be combine with read in order to read the search results. selfwrite Add or delete own DN from a group write Modify attributes on ACI target entries ### 6.1.3. ACI Subjects ACI subjects match characteristics of the client connection to the server. Use subjects to restrict whether the ACI applies depending on who connected, and when, where, and how they connected. authmethod = "none|simple|ssl|sasl mech", authmethod != "none|simple|ssl|sasl mech" Here you use none to mean do not check, simple for simple authentication, ssl for certificate-based authentication over LDAPS, sasl mech for SASL where mech is DIGEST-MD5, EXTERNAL, or GSSAPI. dayofweek = "day[, day …]", dayofweek != "day[, day …]" Replace day with one of sun, mon, tue, wed, thu, fri, sat. dns = "hostname", dns != "hostname" You can use asterisks, *, to replace name components, such as dns = "*.myCompany.com". groupdn = "ldap:///DN[|| ldap:///DN …]", groupdn != "ldap:///DN[|| ldap:///DN …]" Replace DN with the distinguished name of a group to permit or restrict access for members. ip = "addresses", ip != "addresses" Here addresses can be specified for IPv4 or IPv6. IPv6 addresses are specified in brackets as ldap://[address]/subnet-prefix where /subnet-prefix is optional. You can specify individual IPv4 addresses, addresses with asterisks (*) to replace subnets and host numbers, CIDR notation, and forms such as 192.168.0.*+255.255.255.0 to specify subnet masks. ssf = "strength", ssf != "strength", ssf > "strength", ssf >= "strength", ssf < "strength", ssf <= "strength" Here the security strength factor pertains to the cipher key strength for connections using DIGEST-MD5, GSSAPI, SSL, or TLS. For example, to require that the connection must have at least 128 bits of encryption, specify ssf >= 128. timeofday = "hhmm", timeofday != "hhmm", timeofday > "hhmm", timeofday >= "hhmm", timeofday < "hhmm", timeofday <= "hhmm" Here hhmm is expressed as on a 24-hour clock. For example, 1:15 PM is written 1315. userattr = "attr#value", userattr != "attr#value", userattr = ldap-url#LDAPURL", userattr != ldap-url#LDAPURL", userattr = "[parent[child-level]. ]attr#GROUPDN|USERDN", userattr != "[parent[child-level]. ]attr#GROUPDN|USERDN" The userattr subject specifies an attribute that must match on both the bind entry and the target of the ACI. To match when the attribute on the bind DN entry corresponds directly to the attribute on the target entry, replace attr with the attribute type, and value with the attribute value. To match when the target entry is identified by an LDAP URL, and the bind DN is in the subtree of the DN of the LDAP URL, use ldap-url#LDAPURL. To match when the bind DN corresponds to a member of the group identified by the attr value on the target entry, use attr#GROUPDN. To match when the bind DN corresponds to the attr value on the target entry, use attr#USERDN. The optional inheritance specification, parent[child-level]., lets you specify how many levels below the target entry inherit the ACI. Here child-level is a number from 0 to 9, with 0 indicating the target entry only. Separate multiple child-level digits with commas (,). userdn = "ldap-url++[|| ldap-url++ …]", userdn != "ldap-url++[|| ldap-url++ …]" To match the bind DN, replace ldap-url++ with either a valid LDAP URL such as ldap:///uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com, ldap:///dc=example,dc=com??sub?(uid=bjensen), or a special LDAP URL-like keyword from the following list. ldap:///all Match authenticated users. ldap:///anyone Match anonymous and authenticated users. ldap:///parent Match when the bind DN is a parent of the ACI target. ldap:///self Match when the bind DN entry corresponds to ACI target. ### 6.1.4. How ACI is Evaluated Understanding how OpenDJ evaluates the aci values is critical when implementing an access control policy. The rules the server follows are simple. 1. To determine if an operation is allowed or denied, the OpenDJ server looks in the directory for the target of the operation. It collects any aci values from that entry, and then walks up the directory tree to the suffix, collecting all aci values en route. Global aci values are then collected. 2. It then separates the aci values into two lists; one list contains all the aci values that matches the target and denies the required access, and the other list contains all the aci values that matches the target and allows the required access. 3. If the deny list contains any aci values after this procedure, access will be immediately denied. 4. If the deny list is empty, then the allow list is processed. If the allow list contains any aci values, access will be allowed. 5. If both lists are empty, access will be denied. ### Note Some operations require multiple permissions and involve multiple targets. Evaluation will therefore take place multiple times. For example a search operation requires the search permission for each attribute in the search filter. If all those are allowed, the read permission is used to decide what attributes and values can be returned. ### 6.1.5. ACI Required For LDAP Operations The minimal access control information required for specific LDAP operations is described here. Add The ACI must allow the add permission to entries in the target. This implicitly allows the attributes and values to be set. Use targattrfilters to explicitly deny access to any values if required. For example, the ACI required to allow uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com to add an entry is: aci: (version 3.0;acl "Add entry"; allow (add)(userdn = "ldap:///uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com");)  Bind Because this is used to establish the user's identity and derived authorizations, ACI is irrelevant for this operation and is not checked. To prevent authentication, disable the account instead. For more information see Managing Accounts Manually. Compare The ACI must allow the compare permission to the attribute in the target entry. For example, the ACI required to allow uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com to compare values against the sn attribute is: aci: (targetattr = "sn")(version 3.0;acl "Compare surname"; allow (compare)(userdn = "ldap:///uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com");)  Delete The ACI must allow the delete permission to the target entry. This implicitly allows the attributes and values in the target to be deleted. Use targattrfilters to explicitly deny access to the values if required. For example, the ACI required to allow uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com to delete an entry is: aci: (version 3.0;acl "Delete entry"; allow (delete) (userdn = "ldap:///uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com");)  Modify The ACI must allow the write permission to attributes in the target entries. This implicitly allows all values in the target attribute to be modified. Use targattrfilters to explicitly deny access to specific values if required. For example, the ACI required to allow uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com to modify the description attribute in an entry is: aci: (targetattr = "description")(version 3.0; acl "Modify description"; allow (write)(userdn = "ldap:///uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com");)  ModifyDN If the entry is being moved to a newSuperior, the export permission must be allowed on the target, and the import permission must be allowed on the newSuperior entry. The ACI must allow write permission to the attributes in the old RDN and the new RDN. All values of the old RDN and new RDN can be written implicitly; use targattrfilters to explicitly deny access to values used if required. For example, the ACI required to allow uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com to rename entries named with the uid attribute to new locations: aci: (targetattr = "uid")(version 3.0;acl "Rename uid= entries"; allow (write, import, export)(userdn = "ldap:///uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com");)  Search ACI is required to process the search filter, and to determine what attributes and values may be returned in the results. The search permission is used to allow particular attributes in the search filter. The read permission is used to allow particular attributes to be returned. If read permission is allowed to any attribute, the server will automatically allow the objectClass attribute to also be read. For example, the ACI required to allow uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com to search for uid attributes, and also to read that attribute in matching entries is: aci: (targetattr = "uid")(version 3.0;acl "Search and read uid"; allow (search, read)(userdn = "ldap:///uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com");)  ## 6.2. About Privileges Privileges provide access control for server administration independently from access control instructions. Directory root users, such as cn=Directory Manager, are granted privileges in the following list and marked with an asterisk (*) by default. Other administrator users can be assigned privileges, too. backend-backup* Request a task to backup data backend-restore* Request a task to restore data from backup bypass-acl* Perform operations without regard to ACIs bypass-lockdown* Perform operations without regard to lockdown mode cancel-request* Cancel any client request config-read* Read the server configuration config-write* Change the server configuration data-sync Perform data synchronization disconnect-client* Close any client connection jmx-notify Subscribe to JMX notifications jmx-read Read JMX attribute values jmx-write Write JMX attribute values ldif-export* Export data to LDIF ldif-import* Import data from LDIF modify-acl* Change ACIs password-reset* Reset other users' passwords privilege-change* Change the privileges assigned to users proxied-auth Use the Proxied Authorization control server-lockdown* Put OpenDJ into, and take OpenDJ out of, lockdown mode server-restart* Request a task to restart the server server-shutdown* Request a task to stop the server subentry-write* Perform LDAP subentry write operations unindexed-search* Search using a filter with no correponding index update-schema* Change OpenDJ schema definitions * = default directory root user privileges ## 6.3. Configuring Privileges For root directory administrators, by default cn=Directory Manager, you configure privileges using the dsconfig command. For non-root directory administrators, you add privileges with the ldapmodify command. Procedure 6.1. To Change Root DN Privileges 1. Start dsconfig in interactive mode. $ dsconfig
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--bindPassword password
2. Select the Root DN menu.

3. Select View and edit the Root DN.

4. Edit the default-root-privilege-name.

5. Make sure you apply the changes when finished.

Procedure 6.2. To Add Privileges on an Individual Entry

Privileges are specified using the ds-privilege-name operational attribute, which you can change on the command-line using ldapmodify.

1. Determine the privileges to add.

$cat privilege.ldif dn: uid=kvaughan,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com changetype: modify add: ds-privilege-name ds-privilege-name: config-read ds-privilege-name: password-reset  This example lets the user read the server configuration, and reset user passwords. In order for the user to be able to change a user password, you must also allow the modification using ACIs. For this example, Kirsten Vaughan is a member of the Directory Administrators group for Example.com, and already has access to modify user entries. Prior to having the privileges, Kirsten gets messages about insufficent access when trying to read the server configuration, or reset a user password. $ ldapsearch
--port 1389
--bindDN "uid=kvaughan,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com"
--baseDN cn=config
"(objectclass=*)"
SEARCH operation failed
Result Code:  50 (Insufficient Access Rights)
Additional Information:  You do not have sufficient privileges to perform
search operations in the Directory Server configuration
$ldappasswordmodify --port 1389 --bindDN "uid=kvaughan,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com" --bindPassword bribery --authzID "dn:uid=scarter,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com" --newPassword changeit The LDAP password modify operation failed with result code 50 Error Message: You do not have sufficient privileges to perform password reset operations 2. Apply the change as a user with the privilege-change privilege. $ ldapmodify
--port 1389
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--filename privilege.ldif
Processing MODIFY request for uid=kvaughan,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
MODIFY operation successful for DN uid=kvaughan,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com

At this point, Kirsten can perform the operations requiring privileges.

$ldapsearch --port 1389 --bindDN "uid=kvaughan,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com" --bindPassword bribery --baseDN cn=config "(objectclass=*)" dn: cn=config ds-cfg-return-bind-error-messages: false ds-cfg-default-password-policy: cn=Default Password Policy,cn=Password Policies, cn=config …$ ldappasswordmodify
--port 1389
--bindDN "uid=kvaughan,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com"
--authzID "dn:uid=scarter,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com"
The LDAP password modify operation was successful

For deployments with more than one administrator, you no doubt use a group to define adminstrative rights. You can use a collective attribute subentry to specify privileges for the administrator group.

Collective attributes provide a standard mechanism for defining attributes that appear on all the entries in a particular subtree. OpenDJ extends collective attributes to give you fine-grained control over the which entries in the subtree are targetted. Also, OpenDJ lets you use virtual attributes, such as isMemberOf to construct the filter for targetting entries to which the collective attributes apply. This allows you, for example, to define administrative privileges that apply to all users who belong to an administrator group.

1. Create an LDAP subentry that specifies the collective attributes.

$cat collective.ldif dn: cn=Administrator Privileges,dc=example,dc=com objectClass: collectiveAttributeSubentry objectClass: extensibleObject objectClass: subentry objectClass: top cn: Administrator Privileges ds-privilege-name;collective: config-read ds-privilege-name;collective: config-write ds-privilege-name;collective: ldif-export ds-privilege-name;collective: modify-acl ds-privilege-name;collective: password-reset ds-privilege-name;collective: proxied-auth subtreeSpecification: {base "ou=people", specificationFilter "(isMemberOf=cn=Directory Administrators,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com)" }$ ldapmodify
--port 1389
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--filename collective.ldif
ADD operation successful for DN cn=Administrator Privileges,dc=example,dc=com

The Directory Administrators group for Example.com includes members like Kirsten Vaughan.

2. Observe that the change takes effect immediately.

$ldappasswordmodify --port 1389 --bindDN "uid=kvaughan,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com" --bindPassword bribery --authzID "dn:uid=scarter,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com" --newPassword changeit The LDAP password modify operation was successful ## 6.4. Configuring Access Control Access control instructions are defined in the data, as values for aci attributes. They can be imported in LDIF. They can be modified over LDAP. Yet in order to make changes to ACIs users first need the modify-acl privilege described previously. By default, only the root DN user has the modify-acl privilege. Global ACIs on cn=Access Control Handler,cn=config can be set using the dsconfig command. Global ACIs have attribute type ds-cfg-global-aci. Modify global ACIs from the Access Control Handler menu in dsconfig. Default global ACIs set up the following access rules. • Users can employ LDAP controls and perform extended operations. • Anonymous read access is allowed for most user data attributes. • Users can read password values on their own entries after binding. (Also by default, password values are hashed.) • Anonymous read access is allowed for schema-related operational attributes. • Anonymous read access is allowed for root DSE attributes describing what the server supports. • Anonymous read access is allowed for operational attributes related to entry updates and entry identification. • Access to replication data is denied. Users with write access to add ACIs and with the modify-acl privilege can use the ldapmodify command to change ACIs located in user data. This section therefore focuses on ACI examples, rather than demonstrating how to update the directory for each example. To update ACIs, either change them using the ldapmodify command, or using OpenDJ Control Panel. If you use OpenDJ Control Panel, find the entry to modify in the Manage Entries window. Then try View > LDIF View to edit the entry. Control Panel checks your syntax and lets you know if you made an error before it saves any changes. For hints on updating directory entries with ldapmodify, see the section on Modifying Entry Attributes, keeping in mind that the name of the ACI attribute is aci as shown in the examples that follow. Example 6.1. ACI: Anonymous Reads & Searches This works when the only attributes you do not want world-readable are password attributes. aci: (target ="ldap:///dc=example,dc=com")(targetattr != "authPassword || userPassword")(version 3.0;acl "Anonymous read-search access"; allow (read, search, compare)(userdn = "ldap:///anyone");)  Example 6.2. ACI: Disable Anonymous Access By default OpenDJ denies access unless an access control explicitly allows access.[11] However, OpenDJ also allows anonymous access by default to use some controls, to perform certain extended operations, to view root DSE operational attributes, to view directory schema definitions, to view some other operational attributes, and to perform compare and search operations. These default capabilities are defined on the global-aci property of the access control handler, which you can read by using the dsconfig get-access-control-handler-prop command. $ dsconfig
get-access-control-handler-prop
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--property global-aci

You can disable anonymous access either by editing relevant global-aci properties, or by using the global server configuration property, reject-unauthenticated-requests. Editing relevant global-aci properties lets you take a fine-grained approach to limit anonymous access. Setting reject-unauthenticated-requests:true causes OpenDJ directory server to reject all requests from clients who are not authenticated except bind requests and StartTLS requests.

To take a fine-grained approach, use the dsconfig command to edit global-aci properties. One of the most expedient ways to do this is to use the command interactively on one OpenDJ directory server, capturing the output to a script with the --commandFilePath script option, and then editing the script for use on other servers. With this approach, you can allow anonymous read access to the root DSE and to directory schemas so that clients do not have to authenticate to discover server capabilities, and also allow anonymous users access to some controls and extended operations.

$dsconfig --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --commandFilePath /tmp/captured-global-aci-edits.sh # The dsconfig command runs interactively. # Edit Access Control Handler, global-aci attributes replacing # userdn="ldap:///anyone" (anonymous) with userdn="ldap:///all" (authenticated) # in "Anonymous read access" and "User-Visible Operational Attributes" ACIs. # To make this change, you first remove the existing values, # then add the edited values, and finally apply the changes.  Make sure that you also set appropriate ACIs on any data that you import. At this point, clients must authenticate to view search results for example. $ ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com "(uid=bjensen)"
$ldapsearch --bindDN uid=bjensen,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com --bindPassword hifalutin --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com "(uid=bjensen)" cn uid dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com cn: Barbara Jensen cn: Babs Jensen uid: bjensen  You can download an example of the captured command, captured-global-aci-edits.sh. To reject anonymous access except bind and StartTLS requests, set reject-unauthenticated-requests:true. $ dsconfig
set-global-configuration-prop
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--trustAll
--no-prompt
--set reject-unauthenticated-requests:true

Once you set the property, anonymous clients trying to search for example get an Unwilling to Perform response from OpenDJ.

$ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com "(uid=bjensen)" SEARCH operation failed Result Code: 53 (Unwilling to Perform) Additional Information: Rejecting the requested operation because the connection has not been authenticated In both cases, notice that the changes apply to a single OpenDJ directory server configuration, and so are not replicated to other servers. You must instead apply the changes separately to each server. Example 6.3. ACI: Full Access for Administrators Directory Administrators need privileges as well for full access to administrative operations. aci: (target="ldap:///dc=example,dc=com") (targetattr = "* || +")(version 3.0;acl "Admins can run amok"; allow( all, proxy, import, export) groupdn = "ldap:///cn=Directory Administrators,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com";)  Notice both targetattr = "* || +", which permits access to both all user attributes and all operational attributes, and allow(all, proxy, import, export), which permits not only all user operations, but also proxy authorization as well as data import and export operations. Example 6.4. ACI: Change Own Password By default this capability is set in a global ACI. aci: (target ="ldap:///ou=People,dc=example,dc=com")(targetattr = "authPassword || userPassword")(version 3.0;acl "Allow users to change pass words"; allow (write)(userdn = "ldap:///self");) Example 6.5. ACI: Manage Own Group Membership For some static groups such as carpoolers and social club members, you might choose to let users manage their own memberships. aci: (target ="ldap:///ou=Self Service,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com")( targetattr = "member")(version 3.0;acl "Self registration"; allow(selfwrite)( userdn = "ldap:///uid=*,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com");) Example 6.6. ACI: Manage Self Service Groups Let users create and delete self-managed groups. aci: (target ="ldap:///ou=Self Service,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com")( targattrfilters="add=objectClass:(objectClass=groupOfNames)")(version 3.0; acl "All can create self service groups"; allow (add)(userdn= " ldap:///uid=*,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com");) aci: (target ="ldap:///ou=Self Service,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com")(version 3 .0; acl "Owner can delete self service groups"; allow (delete)(userattr= " owner#USERDN");) Example 6.7. ACI: Permit Clear Text Access Over Loopback Only This ACI uses IP address and Security Strength Factor subjects. aci: (target = "ldap:///dc=example,dc=com")(targetattr = "*")(version 3.0;acl "Use loopback only for LDAP in the clear"; deny (all)( ip != "127.0.0.1" and ssf <= "1");) The ssf is one for example when using SSL but you have not configured a cipher, so the packets are checksummed for integrity checking by all content is nevertheless sent in clear text. ## 6.5. Viewing Effective Rights Once you set up a number of ACIs, you might find it difficult to understand by inspection what rights a user actually has to a given entry. The Get Effective Rights control can help. ### Note The control OID, 1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.27.9.5.2, is not allowed by the default global ACIs. In this example, Babs Jensen is the owner of a small group of people who are willing to carpool. $ ldapsearch
--port 1389
--bindDN "uid=bjensen,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com"
--baseDN "ou=Self Service,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com"
"cn=*"
dn: cn=Carpoolers,ou=Self Service,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com
objectClass: groupOfNames
objectClass: top
member: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
description: People who are willing to carpool
owner: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
cn: Carpoolers


Performing the same search with the get effective rights control, and asking for the aclRights attribute, shows what rights Babs has on the entry.

$ldapsearch --control effectiverights --port 1389 --bindDN "uid=bjensen,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com" --bindPassword hifalutin --baseDN "ou=Self Service,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com" "cn=*" aclRights dn: cn=Carpoolers,ou=Self Service,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com aclRights;entryLevel: add:0,delete:1,read:1,write:0,proxy:0  Requesting the aclRightsInfo attribute results in information about the ACIs applied to arrive at the results. $ ldapsearch
--control effectiverights
--port 1389
--bindDN "uid=bjensen,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com"
--baseDN "ou=Self Service,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com"
"cn=*"
aclRights
aclRightsInfo
dn: cn=Carpoolers,ou=Self Service,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com
ntry/attr(cn=Carpoolers,ou=Self Service,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com, objectClas
s) to (uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com) (not proxied) ( reason: evaluat
ed allow , deciding_aci: Anonymous read-search access)
aclRightsInfo;logs;entryLevel;write: acl_summary(main): access not allowed(write
) on entry/attr(cn=Carpoolers,ou=Self Service,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com, NULL
) to (uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com) (not proxied) ( reason: no acis
matched the subject )
entry/attr(cn=Carpoolers,ou=Self Service,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com, NULL) to
(uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com) (not proxied) ( reason: no acis matc
hed the subject )
aclRightsInfo;logs;entryLevel;delete: acl_summary(main): access allowed(delete)
on entry/attr(cn=Carpoolers,ou=Self Service,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com, NULL)
to (uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com) (not proxied) ( reason: evaluated
allow , deciding_aci: Owner can delete self service groups)
aclRightsInfo;logs;entryLevel;proxy: acl_summary(main): access not allowed(proxy
) on entry/attr(cn=Carpoolers,ou=Self Service,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com, NULL
) to (uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com) (not proxied) ( reason: no acis
matched the subject )


You can also request the effective rights for another user by using the --getEffectiveRightsAuthzid (short form: -g) option, which takes the authorization identity of the other user as an argument. The following example shows Directory Manager checking anonymous user rights to the same entry. Notice that the authorization identity for an anonymous user is expressed as "dn:".

$ldapsearch --getEffectiveRightsAuthzid "dn:" --port 1389 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --baseDN "ou=Self Service,ou=groups,dc=example,dc=com" "cn=*" aclRightsInfo dn: cn=Carpoolers,ou=Self Service,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com aclRightsInfo;logs;entryLevel;read: acl_summary(main): access allowed(read) on e ntry/attr(cn=Carpoolers,ou=Self Service,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com, objectClas s) to (anonymous) (not proxied) ( reason: evaluated allow , deciding_aci: Anony mous read-search access) aclRightsInfo;logs;entryLevel;write: acl_summary(main): access not allowed(write ) on entry/attr(cn=Carpoolers,ou=Self Service,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com, NULL ) to (anonymous) (not proxied) ( reason: no acis matched the subject ) aclRightsInfo;logs;entryLevel;add: acl_summary(main): access not allowed(add) on entry/attr(cn=Carpoolers,ou=Self Service,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com, NULL) to (anonymous) (not proxied) ( reason: no acis matched the subject ) aclRightsInfo;logs;entryLevel;delete: acl_summary(main): access not allowed(dele te) on entry/attr(cn=Carpoolers,ou=Self Service,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com, NU LL) to (anonymous) (not proxied) ( reason: no acis matched the subject ) aclRightsInfo;logs;entryLevel;proxy: acl_summary(main): access not allowed(proxy ) on entry/attr(cn=Carpoolers,ou=Self Service,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com, NULL ) to (anonymous) (not proxied) ( reason: no acis matched the subject ) When you need to check access to an attribute that might not yet exist on the entry, you can further use the --getEffectiveRightsAttribute (short form: -e) option, which takes an attribute list as an argument. The following example shows Directory Manager checking anonymous user access to the description attribute for the Self Service groups organizational unit entry. The description attribute is not present on the entry, yet. $ ldapsearch
--port 1389
--baseDN "ou=Self Service,ou=groups,dc=example,dc=com"
"ou=Self Service" description
dn: ou=Self Service,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com

$ldapsearch --getEffectiveRightsAuthzid "dn:" --getEffectiveRightsAttribute description --port 1389 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --baseDN "ou=Self Service,ou=groups,dc=example,dc=com" "ou=Self Service" aclRights dn: ou=Self Service,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com aclRights;attributeLevel;description: search:1,read:1,compare:1,write:0,selfwrit e_add:0,selfwrite_delete:0,proxy:0 aclRights;entryLevel: add:0,delete:0,read:1,write:0,proxy:0 [11] This does not apply to the directory root user, such as cn=Directory Manager, who bypasses ACIs. ## Chapter 7. Performing LDAP Operations OpenDJ comes with a Control Panel browser for managing entries and also command-line tools for performing LDAP operations. This chapter demonstrates how to use the command line tools to script LDAP operations. ## 7.1. Searching the Directory Searching the directory resembles searching for a phone number in a paper phone book. You can look up a phone number because you know the last name of a subscriber's entry. In other words, you use the value of one attribute of the entry to find entries that have another attribute you want. Yet whereas a paper phone book has only one index (alphabetical order by name), the directory has many indexes. For a search you therefore always specify which index to use, by specifying which attribute(s) you are using to lookup entries. Your paper phone book might be divided into white pages for residential subscribers, and yellow pages for businesses. If you are looking up an individual's phone number, you limit your search to the white pages. Directory services divide entries in various ways, often to separate organizations, and to separate groups from user entries from printers for example, but potentially in other ways. When searching you therefore also specify where in the directory to search. The ldapsearch command thus takes at minimum a search base DN option and an LDAP filter. The search base DN identifies where in the directory to search for entries that match the filter. For example, if you are looking for printers, you might specify the base DN as ou=Printers,dc=example,dc=com. Perhaps you are visiting the GNB00 office and are looking for a printer. $ ldapsearch --baseDN ou=Printers,dc=example,dc=com "(printerLocation=GNB00)"

In the example, the LDAP filter indicates to the directory that you want to lookup printer entries where the printerLocation attribute is equal to GNB00.

You also specify the host and port to access directory services, what protocol to use (for example, LDAP/SSL, or StartTLS to protect communication). If the directory service does not allow anonymous access to the data you want to search, you also identify who is performing the search and provide their credentials, such as a password or certificate. Finally, you can specify a list of attributes to return. If you do not specify attributes, then the search returns all user attributes for the entry.

Review the following examples in this section to get a sense of how searches work.

Example 7.1. Search: Simple Filter

The following example searches for entries with user IDs (uid) containing jensen, returning only DNs and user ID values.

$ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com "(uid=*jensen*)" uid dn: uid=ajensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com uid: ajensen dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com uid: bjensen dn: uid=gjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com uid: gjensen dn: uid=jjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com uid: jjensen dn: uid=kjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com uid: kjensen dn: uid=rjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com uid: rjensen dn: uid=tjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com uid: tjensen Result Code: 0 (Success) Example 7.2. Search: Complex Filter The following example returns entries with uid containing jensen for users located in Santa Clara. The command returns the attributes associated with the person object class. $ ldapsearch
--port 1389
--baseDN ou=people,dc=example,dc=com
"(&(uid=*jensen*)(l=Santa Clara))"
@person
dn: uid=ajensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
objectClass: person
objectClass: organizationalPerson
objectClass: inetOrgPerson
objectClass: posixAccount
objectClass: top
cn: Allison Jensen
telephoneNumber: +1 408 555 7892
sn: Jensen

dn: uid=gjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
objectClass: person
objectClass: organizationalPerson
objectClass: inetOrgPerson
objectClass: posixAccount
objectClass: top
cn: Gern Jensen
telephoneNumber: +1 408 555 3299
sn: Jensen

dn: uid=kjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
objectClass: person
objectClass: organizationalPerson
objectClass: inetOrgPerson
objectClass: posixAccount
objectClass: top
cn: Kurt Jensen
telephoneNumber: +1 408 555 6127
sn: Jensen

dn: uid=tjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
objectClass: person
objectClass: organizationalPerson
objectClass: inetOrgPerson
objectClass: posixAccount
objectClass: top
cn: Ted Jensen
telephoneNumber: +1 408 555 8622
sn: Jensen



Complex filters can use both "and" syntax, (&(filtercomp)(filtercomp)), and "or" syntax, (|(filtercomp)(filtercomp)).

Example 7.3. Search: Return Operational Attributes

Use + in the attribute list after the filter to return all operational attributes. Alternatively, specify operational attributes by name.

$ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com uid=bjensen + dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com numSubordinates: 0 structuralObjectClass: inetOrgPerson pwdPolicySubentry: cn=Default Password Policy,cn=Password Policies,cn=config subschemaSubentry: cn=schema hasSubordinates: false entryDN: uid=bjensen,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com entryUUID: fc252fd9-b982-3ed6-b42a-c76d2546312c Example 7.4. Search: Return Attributes for an Object Class Use @objectClass in the attribute list after the filter to return the attributes associated with a particular object class. $ ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com uid=bjensen @person
dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
objectClass: person
objectClass: organizationalPerson
objectClass: inetOrgPerson
objectClass: posixAccount
objectClass: top
cn: Barbara Jensen
cn: Babs Jensen
telephoneNumber: +1 408 555 1862
sn: Jensen

Example 7.5. Search: Escaping Search Filter Characters

RFC 4515: Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP): String Representation of Search Filters mentions a number of characters that you must handle with care when using them in search filters.

For a filter like (attr=value), the following list indicates characters that you must replace with a backslash ( \ ) followed by two hexadecimal digits when using them as part of the value string.

• Replace * with \2a.

• Replace ( with \28.

• Replace ) with \29.

• Replace \ with \5c.

• Replace NUL (0x00) with \00.

The following example shows a filter with escaped characters matching an actual value.

$ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com "(description=\28*\5c*\2a\29)" description dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com description: (A \great\ description*) Example 7.6. Search: List Active Accounts OpenDJ supports extensible matching rules, meaning you can pass in filters specifying a matching rule OID that extends your search beyond what you can do with standard LDAP. One specific matching rule of this type that OpenDJ supports is the generalized time based "later than" and "earlier than" matching rules. See the example, Configure an Extensible Match Index, showing how to build an index for these matching rules. You can use these matching rules to list, for example, all users who have authenticated recently. First set up an attribute to store a last login timestamp. You can do this by adding a schema file for the attribute. $ ldapmodify
--port 1389
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
dn: cn=schema
changetype: modify
DESC 'Last time the user logged in'
EQUALITY generalizedTimeMatch
ORDERING generalizedTimeOrderingMatch
SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.24
SINGLE-VALUE
NO-USER-MODIFICATION
USAGE directoryOperation
X-ORIGIN 'OpenDJ example documentation' )

Processing MODIFY request for cn=schema
MODIFY operation successful for DN cn=schema



Configure the applicable password policy to write the last login timestamp when a user authenticates. The following command configures the default password policy to write the timestamp in generalized time format to the lastLoginTime operational attribute on the user's entry.

$dsconfig set-password-policy-prop --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --policy-name "Default Password Policy" --set last-login-time-attribute:lastLoginTime --set last-login-time-format:"yyyyMMddHH'Z'" --trustAll --no-prompt Wait a while for users to authenticate again (or test it yourself) so that OpenDJ writes the timestamps. The following search then returns users who have authenticated in the last three months (13 weeks) after you configured OpenDJ to keep the last login timestamps. $ ldapsearch
--port 1389
--baseDN dc=example,dc=com
dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
mail: bjensen@example.com

dn: uid=kvaughan,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
mail: kvaughan@example.com

Example 7.7. Search: Language Subtype

OpenDJ directory server supports many language subtypes. See the chapter on Localization for a list.

When you perform a search you can request the language subtype by OID or by language subtype string. For example, the following search gets the French version of a common name. The example uses the base64 command provided with OpenDJ directory server to decode the attribute value.

$ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com "(givenName:fr:=Fréderique)" cn\;lang-fr dn: uid=fdupont,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com cn;lang-fr:: RnJlZMOpcmlxdWUgRHVwb250$ base64 decode -d RnJlZMOpcmlxdWUgRHVwb250
Fredérique Dupont

At the end of the OID or language subtype, you further specify the matching rule as follows:

• Add .1 for less than

• Add .2 for less than or equal to

• Add .3 for equal to (default)

• Add .4 for greater than or equal to

• Add .5 for greater than

• Add .6 for substring

The following table describes the operators you can use in LDAP search filters.

Table 7.1. LDAP Filter Operators
OperatorDefinitionExample
=

Equality comparison, as in (sn=Jensen).

This can also be used with substring matches. For example, to match last names starting with Jen, use the filter (sn=Jen*). Substrings are more expensive for the directory server to index. Substring searches therefore might not be permitted for many attributes.

"(cn=My App)" matches entries with common name My App.

"(sn=Jen*)" matches entries with surname starting with Jen.

<=

Less than or equal to comparison, which works alphanumerically.

"(cn<=App)" matches entries with commonName up to those starting with App (case-insensitive) in alphabetical order.

>=

Greater than or equal to comparison, which works alphanumerically.

"(uidNumber>=1151)" matches entries with uidNumber greater than 1151.

=*

Presence comparison. For example, to match all entries having a userPassword, use the filter (userPassword=*).

"(member=*)" matches entries with a member attribute.

~=

Approximate comparison, matching attribute values similar to the value you specify.

"(sn~=jansen)" matches entries with a surname that sounds similar to Jansen (Johnson, Jensen, and so forth).

[:dn][:oid]:=

Extensible match comparison.

At the end of the OID or language subtype, you further specify the matching rule as follows:

• Add .1 for less than

• Add .2 for less than or equal to

• Add .3 for equal to (default)

• Add .4 for greater than or equal to

• Add .5 for greater than

• Add .6 for substring

(uid:dn:=bjensen) matches entries where uid having the value bjensen is a component of the entry DN.

(lastLoginTime: 1.3.6.1.4.1.26027.1.4.5:=-13w) matches entries with a last login time more recent than 13 weeks.

You also use extensible match filters with localized values. Directory servers like OpenDJ support a variety of internationalized locales, each of which has an OID for collation order, such as 1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.27.9.4.76.1 for French. OpenDJ also lets you use the language subtype, such as fr, instead of the OID.

"(cn:dn:=My App)" matches entries who have My App as the common name and also as the value of a DN component.

!

NOT operator, to find entries that do not match the specified filter component.

Take care to limit your search when using ! to avoid matching so many entries that the server treats your search as unindexed.

'!(objectclass=person)' matches non-person entries.

&

AND operator, to find entries that match all specified filter components.

'(&(l=Cupertino)(!(uid=bjensen)))' matches entries for users in Cupertino other than the user with ID bjensen.

|

OR operator, to find entries that match one of the specified filter components.

"|(sn=Jensen)(sn=Johnson)" matches entries with surname Jensen or surname Johnson.

## 7.2. Comparing Attribute Values

The compare operation checks whether an attribute value you specify matches the attribute value stored on one or more directory entries.

Example 7.8. Compare: Checking authPassword

In this example, Kirsten Vaughan checks whether the hashed password value matches the stored value on authPassword.

$ldapcompare --port 1389 --bindDN "uid=kvaughan,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com" --bindPassword bribery 'authPassword:MD5$dFHgpDxXUT8=$qlC4xMXvmVlusJLz9/WJ5Q==' uid=kvaughan,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com Comparing type authPassword with value MD5$dFHgpDxXUT8=$qlC4xMXvmVlusJLz9/WJ5Q== in entry uid=kvaughan,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com Compare operation returned true for entry uid=kvaughan,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com ## 7.3. Updating the Directory Authorized users can change directory data using the LDAP add, modify, modify DN, and delete operations. ### 7.3.1. Adding Entries With the ldapmodify -a command, authorized users can add entire entries from the same sort of LDIF file used to import and export data. Example 7.9. Add: Two New Users $ cat new-users.ldif
dn: cn=Arsene Lupin,ou=Special Users,dc=example,dc=com
objectClass: person
objectClass: top
cn: Arsene Lupin
telephoneNumber: +33 1 23 45 67 89
sn: Lupin

dn: cn=Horace Velmont,ou=Special Users,dc=example,dc=com
objectClass: person
objectClass: top
cn: Horace Velmont
telephoneNumber: +33 1 12 23 34 45
sn: Velmont

$ldapmodify --defaultAdd --port 1389 --bindDN "uid=kvaughan,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com" --bindPassword bribery --filename new-users.ldif Processing ADD request for cn=Arsene Lupin,ou=Special Users,dc=example,dc=com ADD operation successful for DN cn=Arsene Lupin,ou=Special Users,dc=example,dc=com Processing ADD request for cn=Horace Velmont,ou=Special Users,dc=example,dc=com ADD operation successful for DN cn=Horace Velmont,ou=Special Users,dc=example,dc=com ### 7.3.2. Modifying Entry Attributes With the ldapmodify command, authorized users can change the values of attributes in the directory using LDIF as specified in RFC 2849. Example 7.10. Modify: Adding Attributes The following example adds a description and JPEG photo to Sam Carter's entry. $ cat scarter-mods.ldif
dn: uid=scarter,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com
changetype: modify
description: Accounting Manager
-
jpegphoto:<file:///tmp/Samantha-Carter.jpg

$ldapmodify --port 1389 --bindDN "uid=kvaughan,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com" --bindPassword bribery --filename scarter-mods.ldif Processing MODIFY request for uid=scarter,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com MODIFY operation successful for DN uid=scarter,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com Example 7.11. Modify: Changing an Attribute Value The following example replaces the description on Sam Carter's entry. $ cat scarter-newdesc.ldif
dn: uid=scarter,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com
changetype: modify
replace: description
description: Accounting Director

$ldapmodify --port 1389 --bindDN "uid=kvaughan,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com" --bindPassword bribery --filename scarter-newdesc.ldif Processing MODIFY request for uid=scarter,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com MODIFY operation successful for DN uid=scarter,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com Example 7.12. Modify: Deleting an Attribute Value The following example deletes the JPEG photo on Sam Carter's entry. $ cat /path/to/scarter-deljpeg.ldif
dn: uid=scarter,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com
changetype: modify
delete: jpegphoto

$ldapmodify --port 1389 --bindDN "uid=kvaughan,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com" --bindPassword bribery --filename scarter-deljpeg.ldif Processing MODIFY request for uid=scarter,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com MODIFY operation successful for DN uid=scarter,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com Example 7.13. Modify: Optimistic Concurrency Imagine you are writing an application that lets end users update user profiles through a browser. You store user profiles as OpenDJ entries. Your end users can look up user profiles and modify them. Your application assumes that the end users can tell the right information when they see it, and so aims to update profiles exactly as users see them on their screens. Consider two users, Alice and Bob, both busy and often interrupted. Alice has Babs Jensen's new phone and room numbers. Bob has Babs's new location and description. Both assume that they have all the information that has changed. What can you do to make sure that your application applies the right changes when Alice and Bob simulaneously update Babs Jensen's profile? OpenDJ offers a couple of features to help you in this situation. One of the features is the LDAP Assertion Control, used to tell OpenDJ to perform the modify only if an assertion you make stays true. The other feature is OpenDJ's support for entity tag (ETag) attributes, making it easy to check whether the entry in the directory is the same as the entry you read. Alice and Bob both get Babs's entry. In LDIF the relevant attributes from the entry look like this. Notice the ETag. dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com telephoneNumber: +1 408 555 1862 roomNumber: 0209 l: Cupertino ETag: 000000007a1999df Bob prepares his changes in your application. Bob is almost ready to submit the new location and description when Carol stops by to ask Bob a few questions. Alice starts just after Bob, but manages to submit her changes without getting interrupted. Now Babs's entry looks like this. dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com description: Updated by Alice telephoneNumber: +47 2108 1746 roomNumber: 1389 l: Cupertino ETag: 00000000aec2c1e9 In your application, you use the ETag attribute value with the assertion control to prevent Bob's update from going through when the ETag value has changed. Your application tries the equivalent of the following commands with Bob's updates. $ cat /path/to/bobs.ldif
dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
changetype: modify
replace: l
l: Grenoble
-
description: Employee of the Month

$ldapmodify --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --port 1389 --filename /path/to/bobs.ldif --assertionFilter "(ETag=000000007a1999df)" Processing MODIFY request for uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com MODIFY operation failed Result Code: 122 (Assertion Failed) Additional Information: Entry uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com cannot be modified because the request contained an LDAP assertion control and the associated filter did not match the contents of the that entry Your application therefore reloads Babs's entry, also getting the new ETag value, 00000000aec2c1e9, and lets Bob try again. This time Bob's changes do not collide with other changes. Babs's entry is successfully updated. dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com description: Employee of the Month telephoneNumber: +47 2108 1746 roomNumber: 1389 l: Grenoble ETag: 00000000e882c35e ### 7.3.3. Filtering Add & Modify Operations Some client applications send updates including attributes with names that differ from the attribute names defined in OpenDJ. Other client applications might try to update attributes they should not update, such as the operational attributes creatorsName, createTimestamp, modifiersName, and modifyTimestamp. Ideally you would fix the client application behavior, but that is not always feasible. You can configure the attribute cleanup plugin to filter add and modify requests, renaming attributes in requests using incorrect names, and removing attributes that applications should not change. Example 7.14. Renaming Incoming Attributes The following example renames incoming email attributes to mail attributes. First, configure the attribute cleanup plugin to rename the inbound attribute. $ dsconfig
create-plugin
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--type attribute-cleanup
--plugin-name "Rename email to mail"
--set enabled:true
--set rename-inbound-attributes:email:mail
--trustAll
--no-prompt

Next, see that it works as expected.

$cat email.ldif dn: uid=newuser,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com uid: newuser objectClass: person objectClass: organizationalPerson objectClass: inetOrgPerson objectClass: top cn: New User sn: User ou: People email: newuser@example.com userPassword: changeme$ ldapmodify
--port 1389
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--filename email.ldif
ADD operation successful for DN uid=newuser,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
$ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com uid=newuser mail dn: uid=newuser,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com mail: newuser@example.com Example 7.15. Removing Incoming Attributes The following example prevents client applications from adding or modifying creatorsName, createTimestamp, modifiersName, and modifyTimestamp attributes. First, set up the attribute cleanup plugin. $ dsconfig
create-plugin
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--type attribute-cleanup
--plugin-name "Remove attrs"
--set enabled:true
--set remove-inbound-attributes:creatorsName
--set remove-inbound-attributes:createTimestamp
--set remove-inbound-attributes:modifiersName
--set remove-inbound-attributes:modifyTimestamp
--trustAll
--no-prompt

Next, see that it works as expected.

$cat badattrs.ldif dn: uid=badattr,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com uid: newuser objectClass: person objectClass: organizationalPerson objectClass: inetOrgPerson objectClass: top cn: Bad Attr sn: Attr ou: People mail: badattr@example.com userPassword: changeme creatorsName: cn=Bad Attr createTimestamp: Never in a million years. modifiersName: cn=Directory Manager,cn=Root DNs,cn=config modifyTimestamp: 20110930164937Z$ ldapmodify
--port 1389
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
$ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com uid=badattr + dn: uid=badattr,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com numSubordinates: 0 structuralObjectClass: inetOrgPerson pwdPolicySubentry: cn=Default Password Policy,cn=Password Policies,cn=config subschemaSubentry: cn=schema hasSubordinates: false entryDN: uid=badattr,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com entryUUID: 35e5cb0e-e929-49d8-a50f-2df036d60db9 pwdChangedTime: 20110930165959.135Z creatorsName: cn=Directory Manager,cn=Root DNs,cn=config createTimestamp: 20110930165959Z ### 7.3.4. Renaming Entries The Relative Distinguished Name (RDN) refers to the part of an entry's DN that distinguishes it from all other DNs at the same level in the directory tree. For example uid=bjensen is the RDN of the entry having DN uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com. With the ldapmodify command, authorized users can rename entries in the directory. When you change the RDN of the entry, you are renaming the entry, modifying the value of the naming attribute, but also modifying the entry's DN. Example 7.16. Rename: Modifying the DN Sam Carter is changing her last name to Jensen, and changing her login from scarter to sjensen. The following example renames and changes Sam Carter's entry accordingly. Notice the boolean field, deleteoldrdn: 1, which indicates that the previous RDN, uid: scarter, should be removed. (Setting deleteoldrdn: 0 instead would preserve uid: scarter on the entry.) $ cat /path/to/scarter-sjensen.ldif
dn: uid=scarter,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com
changetype: modrdn
newrdn: uid=sjensen
deleteoldrdn: 1

dn: uid=sjensen,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com
changetype: modify
replace: cn
cn: Sam Jensen
-
replace: sn
sn: Jensen
-
replace: homeDirectory
homeDirectory: /home/sjensen
-
replace: mail
mail: sjensen@example.com

$ldapmodify --port 1389 --bindDN "uid=kvaughan,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com" --bindPassword bribery --filename /path/to/scarter-sjensen.ldif Processing MODIFY DN request for uid=scarter,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com MODIFY DN operation successful for DN uid=scarter,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com Processing MODIFY request for uid=sjensen,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com MODIFY operation successful for DN uid=sjensen,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com ### 7.3.5. Moving Entries When you rename an entry with child entries, the directory has to move all the entries underneath. ### Note The modify DN operation only works when moving entries in the same backend, under the same suffix. Also, depending on the number of entries you move, this can be a resource-intensive operation. With the ldapmodify command, authorized users can move entries in the directory. Example 7.17. Move: Merging Customer and Employees Under ou=People The following example moves ou=Customers,dc=example,dc=com to ou=People,dc=example,dc=com, and then moves each employee under ou=Employees,dc=example,dc=com under ou=People,dc=example,dc=com as well, finally removing the empty ou=Employees,dc=example,dc=com container. Here, deleteoldrdn: 1 indicates that the old RDN, ou: Customers, should be removed from the entry. For employees, deleteoldrdn: 0 indicates that old RDNs, in this case uid attribute values, should be preserved. $ cat move-customers.ldif
dn: ou=Customers,dc=example,dc=com
changetype: modrdn
newrdn: ou=People
deleteoldrdn: 1
newsuperior: dc=example,dc=com

$ldapmodify --port 1389 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --filename move-customers.ldif Processing MODIFY DN request for ou=Customers,dc=example,dc=com MODIFY DN operation successful for DN ou=Customers,dc=example,dc=com$ cat move-employees.pl
#!/usr/bin/perl -w

# For each employee, construct a spec to move under ou=People.
while (<>)
{
# Next line folded for readability only. Should not be split.
$_ =~ s/dn: (.*?)(,.*)/dn:$1$2\nchangetype: moddn\nnewrdn:$1\n
deleteoldrdn: 0\nnewsuperior: ou=People,dc=example,dc=com/;
print;
}
$ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN ou=Employees,dc=example,dc=com uid=* - | move-employees.pl > /tmp/move-employees.ldif$ head -n 6 /tmp/move-employees.ldif
dn: uid=abarnes,ou=Employees,dc=example,dc=com
changetype: moddn
newrdn: uid=abarnes
deleteoldrdn: 0
newsuperior: ou=People,dc=example,dc=com

$ldapmodify --port 1389 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --filename /tmp/move-employees.ldif Processing MODIFY DN request for uid=abarnes,ou=Employees,dc=example,dc=com MODIFY DN operation successful for DN uid=abarnes,ou=Employees,dc=example,dc=com Processing MODIFY DN request for uid=abergin,ou=Employees,dc=example,dc=com MODIFY DN operation successful for DN uid=abergin,ou=Employees,dc=example,dc=com ... Processing MODIFY DN request for uid=wlutz,ou=Employees,dc=example,dc=com MODIFY DN operation successful for DN uid=wlutz,ou=Employees,dc=example,dc=com$ ldapdelete
--port 1389
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
ou=Employees,dc=example,dc=com
Processing DELETE request for ou=Employees,dc=example,dc=com
DELETE operation successful for DN ou=Employees,dc=example,dc=com

### 7.3.6. Deleting Entries

With the ldapmodify command, authorized users can delete entries from the directory.

Example 7.18. Delete: Removing a Subtree

The following example uses the subtree delete option to remove all Special Users from the directory.

$ldapdelete --port 1389 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --deleteSubtree "ou=Special Users,dc=example,dc=com" Processing DELETE request for ou=Special Users,dc=example,dc=com DELETE operation successful for DN ou=Special Users,dc=example,dc=com ## 7.4. Changing Passwords With the ldappasswordmodify command, authorized users can change and reset user passwords. Example 7.19. Password Reset The following example shows Kirsten Vaughan resetting Sam Carter's password. Kirsten has the appropriate privilege to reset Sam's password. $ ldappasswordmodify
--useStartTLS
--port 1389
--bindDN "uid=kvaughan,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com"
--authzID "dn:uid=scarter,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com"
The LDAP password modify operation was successful

### Tip

The ldappasswordmodify command uses the LDAP Password Modify extended operation. If this extended operation is performed on a connection that is already associated with a user —in other words, when a user first does a bind on the connection, and then requests the LDAP Password Modify extended operation— then the operation is performed as the user associated with the connection. If the user associated with the connection is not the user whose password is being changed, then OpenDJ considers it a password reset.

Whenever one user changes another user's password, OpenDJ considers it a password reset. Often password policies specify that users must change their passwords again after a password reset.

To change the password as the user, you can bind as the user whose password should be changed, use the LDAP Password Modify extended operation with an authorization ID but without performing a bind, or use proxied authorization. For instructions on using proxied authorization, see the section on Configuring Proxied Authorization.

You could also accomplish password reset with the following command, but set-password-is-reset is a hidden option, supported only for testing.

$manage-account set-password-is-reset --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --targetDN uid=scarter,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com --operationValue true Password Is Reset: true Example 7.20. Change Own Password You can use the ldappasswordmodify command to change your password, as long as you know your current password. $ ldappasswordmodify
--port 1389
--authzID "dn:uid=bjensen,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com"
The LDAP password modify operation was successful

The same operation works for cn=Directory Manager.

$ldappasswordmodify --port 1389 --authzID "dn:cn=Directory Manager" --currentPassword password --newPassword secret12 The LDAP password modify operation was successful Example 7.21. Passwords With Special Characters OpenDJ expects passwords to be UTF-8 encoded (base64 encoded when included in LDIF). $ echo $LANG en_US.utf8$ ldappasswordmodify
--port 1389
--bindDN uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
The LDAP password modify operation was successful
$ldapsearch --port 1389 --bindDN uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com --bindPassword pàsswȏrd --baseDN dc=example,dc=com "(uid=bjensen)" cn dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com userPassword: {SSHA}k0eEeCxj9YRXUp8yJn0Z/mwqe+wrcFb1N1gg2g== cn: Barbara Jensen cn: Babs Jensen  ## 7.5. Configuring Default Settings You can use ~/.opendj/tools.properties to set the defaults for bind DN, host name, and port number as in the following example. hostname=directory.example.com port=1389 bindDN=uid=kvaughan,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com ldapcompare.port=1389 ldapdelete.port=1389 ldapmodify.port=1389 ldappasswordmodify.port=1389 ldapsearch.port=1389 The location on Windows is %UserProfile%/.opendj/tools.properties. ## 7.6. Authenticating To the Directory Server Authentication is the act of confirming the identity of a principal. Authorization is the act of determining whether to grant or to deny access to a principal. Authentication is done to make authorization decisions. As explained in Configuring Privileges & Access Control, OpenDJ directory server implements fine-grained access control for authorization. What is authorized depends on who is requesting the operation. Directory servers like OpenDJ must first therefore authenticate the principals using the clients before they can authorize or deny access. The LDAP bind operation, where a directory client authenticates with the directory server, is therefore the first LDAP operation in every LDAP session. Clients bind by providing both a means to find their principal's entry in the directory and also providing some credentials that the directory server can check against their entry. In the simplest bind operation, the client provides a zero-length name and a zero-length password. This results in an anonymous bind, meaning the client is authenticated as an anonymous user of the directory. In the simplest examples in Section 7.1, “Searching the Directory”, notice that no authentication information is provided. The examples work because the client commands default to requesting anonymous binds when you provide no credentials, and because access controls for the sample data allow anonymous clients to read, search, and compare some directory data. In a simple bind operation, the client provides an LDAP name, such as the DN identifying its entry, and the corresponding password stored on the userPassword attribute of the entry. In Section 7.3, “Updating the Directory”, notice that to change directory data the client provides the bind DN and bind password of a user who has permission to change directory data. The commands do not work with a bind DN and bind password because access controls for the sample data only allow authorized users to change directory data. Users rarely provide client applications with DNs, however. Instead users might provide a client application with an identity string like a user ID or an email address for example. Depending on how the DNs are constructed, the client application can either build the DN directly from the user's identity string, or use a session where the bind has been done with some other identity to search for the user entry based on the user's identity string. Given the DN constructed or found, the client application can then perform a simple bind. For example, suppose Babs Jensen enters her email address, bjensen@example.com, and her password in order to log in. The client application might search for the entry matching (mail=bjensen@example.com) under base DN dc=example,dc=com. Alternatively, the client application might know to extract the user ID bjensen from the address, and then build the corresponding DN, uid=bjensen,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com in order to bind. When an identifier string provided by the user can readily be mapped to the user's entry DN, OpenDJ directory server can do the translation between the identifier string and the entry DN. This translation is the job of a component called an identity mapper. Identity mappers are used to perform PLAIN SASL authentication (with a user name and password), SASL GSSAPI authentication (Kerberos V5), SASL CRAM MD5 and DIGEST MD5 authentication. They also handle authorization IDs during password modify extended operations and proxied authorization. One use of PLAIN SASL is to translate user names from HTTP Basic authentication to LDAP authentication. The following example shows PLAIN SASL authentication using the default Exact Match identity mapper. In this (contrived) example, Babs Jensen reads the hashed value of her password. (According to the access controls in the example data, Babs must authenticate to read her password.) Notice the authentication ID is her user ID, u:bjensen, rather than the DN of her entry. $ ldapsearch
--port 1389
--useStartTLS
--baseDN dc=example,dc=com
--saslOption mech=PLAIN
--saslOption authid=u:bjensen
dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
cn: Barbara Jensen
cn: Babs Jensen
userPassword: {SSHA}7S4Si+vPE513cYQ7otiqb8hjiCzU7XNTv0RPBA==

The Exact Match identity mapper searches for a match between the string provided (here, bjensen) and the value of a specified attribute (by default the uid attribute). If you know users are entering their email addresses, you could create an exact match identity mapper for email addresses, and then use that for PLAIN SASL authentication as in the following example.

$dsconfig create-identity-mapper --hostname opendj.example.com --port 4444 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --mapper-name "Email Mapper" --type exact-match --set match-attribute:mail --set enabled:true --no-prompt$ dsconfig
set-sasl-mechanism-handler-prop
--hostname opendj.example.com
--port 4444
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--handler-name PLAIN
--set identity-mapper:"Email Mapper"
--no-prompt
$ldapsearch --port 1389 --useStartTLS --baseDN dc=example,dc=com --saslOption mech=PLAIN --saslOption authid=u:bjensen@example.com --bindPassword hifalutin "(cn=Babs Jensen)" cn userPassword dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com cn: Barbara Jensen cn: Babs Jensen userPassword: {SSHA}7S4Si+vPE513cYQ7otiqb8hjiCzU7XNTv0RPBA== The Regular Expression identity mapper uses a regular expression to extract a substring from the string provided, and then searches for a match between the substring and the value of a specified attribute. In the case of example data where an email address is user ID + @ + domain, you can use the default Regular Expression identity mapper in the same way as the email mapper from the previous example. The default regular expression pattern is ^([^@]+)@.+$, and the part of the identity string matching ([^@]+) is used to find the entry by user ID.

$dsconfig set-sasl-mechanism-handler-prop --hostname opendj.example.com --port 4444 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --handler-name PLAIN --set identity-mapper:"Regular Expression" --no-prompt$ ldapsearch
--port 1389
--useStartTLS
--baseDN dc=example,dc=com
--saslOption mech=PLAIN
--saslOption authid=u:bjensen@example.com
dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
cn: Barbara Jensen
cn: Babs Jensen
userPassword: {SSHA}7S4Si+vPE513cYQ7otiqb8hjiCzU7XNTv0RPBA==

Try the dsconfig command interactively to experiment with match-pattern and replace-pattern settings for the Regular Expression identity mapper. The match-pattern can be any regular expression supported by javax.util.regex.Pattern.

## 7.7. Configuring Proxied Authorization

Proxied authorization provides a standard control as defined in RFC 4370 (and an earlier Internet-Draft) for binding with the user credentials of a proxy, who carries out LDAP operations on behalf of other users. You might use proxied authorization, for example, to have your application bind with its credentials, and then carry out operations as the users who login to the application.

Suppose you have an administrative directory client application that has an entry in the directory with DN cn=My App,ou=Apps,dc=example,dc=com. You can give that application the access rights and privileges to use proxied authorization. The default access control for OpenDJ permits authenticated users to use the proxied authorization control.

Suppose also that when directory administrator, Kirsten Vaughan, logs in to your application to change Babs Jensen's entry, your application looks up Kirsten's entry, and finds that she has DN uid=kvaughan,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com. For the example commands in the following procedure. My App uses proxied authorization to make a change to Babs's entry as Kirsten.

Procedure 7.1. To Set Up Proxied Authorization

$ldapmodify --port 1389 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password dn: dc=example,dc=com changetype: modify add: aci aci: (target="ldap:///dc=example,dc=com") (targetattr ="* ")(version 3.0; acl "Allow apps proxied auth"; allow(all, proxy )(userdn = "ldap:///cn=*,ou=Apps,dc=example,dc=com");) Processing MODIFY request for dc=example,dc=com MODIFY operation successful for DN dc=example,dc=com 2. Grant the privilege to use proxied authorization to My App. $ ldapmodify
--port 1389
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
dn: cn=My App,ou=Apps,dc=example,dc=com
changetype: modify
ds-privilege-name: proxied-auth

Processing MODIFY request for cn=My App,ou=Apps,dc=example,dc=com
MODIFY operation successful for DN cn=My App,ou=Apps,dc=example,dc=com
3. Test that My App can use proxied authorization.

$ldapmodify --port 1389 --bindDN "cn=My App,ou=Apps,dc=example,dc=com" --bindPassword password --proxyAs "dn:uid=kvaughan,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com" dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com changetype: modify replace: description description: Changed through proxied auth Processing MODIFY request for uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com MODIFY operation successful for DN uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com If you need to map authorization identifiers using the u: form rather than using dn:, you can set the identity mapper with the global configuration setting, proxied-authorization-identity-mapper. For example, if you get user ID values from the client, such as bjensen, you can use the Exact Match Identity Mapper to match those to DNs based on an attribute of the entry. Use the dsconfig command interactively to investigate the settings you need. ## 7.8. Authenticating Using a Certificate One alternative to simple binds with user name/password combinations consists in storing a digital certificate on the user entry, and then using the certificate as credentials during the bind. You can use this mechanism for example to let applications bind without using passwords. Simply by setting up a secure connection with a certificate, the client is in effect authenticating to the server. The server must close the connection if it cannot trust the client certificate. However, the process of establishing a secure connection does not in itself identify the client to OpenDJ directory server. Instead when binding with a certificate, the client must request the SASL External mechanism by which OpenDJ directory server maps the certificate to the client entry in the directory. When it finds a match, OpenDJ sets the authorization identity for the connection to that of the client, and the bind is successful. For the whole process of authenticating with a certificate to work smoothly, OpenDJ and the client must trust each others' certificates, the client certificate must be stored on the client entry in the directory, and OpenDJ must be configured to map the certificate to the client entry. Procedure 7.2. To Add Certificate Information to an Entry Before trying to bind to OpenDJ directory server using a certificate, create a certificate, and then add the certificate attributes to the entry. Example.ldif includes an entry for cn=My App,ou=Apps,dc=example,dc=com. Examples in this section use that entry, and use the Java keytool command to manage the certificate. 1. Create a certificate using the DN of the client entry as the distinguished name string. $ keytool
-genkey
-alias myapp-cert
-keyalg rsa
-dname "cn=My App,ou=Apps,dc=example,dc=com"
-keystore keystore
-storepass changeit
-keypass changeit
2. Get the certificate signed.

If you cannot get the certificate signed by a Certificate Authority, self-sign the certificate.

$keytool -selfcert -alias myapp-cert -validity 7300 -keystore keystore -storepass changeit -keypass changeit 3. Make note of the certificate fingerprints. Later in this procedure you update the client application entry with the MD5 fingerprint, which in this example is 48:AC:F9:13:11:E0:AB:C4:65:A2:83:9E:DB:FE:0C:37. $ keytool
-list
-v
-alias myapp-cert
-keystore keystore
-storepass changeit
Alias name: myapp-cert
Creation date: Jan 18, 2013
Entry type: PrivateKeyEntry
Certificate chain length: 1
Certificate[1]:
Owner: CN=My App, OU=Apps, DC=example, DC=com
Issuer: CN=My App, OU=Apps, DC=example, DC=com
Serial number: 5ae2277
Valid from: Fri Jan 18 18:27:09 CET 2013 until: Thu Jan 13 18:27:09 CET 2033
Certificate fingerprints:
MD5:  48:AC:F9:13:11:E0:AB:C4:65:A2:83:9E:DB:FE:0C:37
SHA1: F9:61:54:37:AA:C1:BC:92:45:07:64:4B:23:6C:BC:C9:CD:1D:44:0F
SHA256: 2D:B1:58:CD:33:40:E9:...:FD:61:EA:C9:FF:6A:19:93:FE:E4:84:E3
Signature algorithm name: SHA256withRSA
Version: 3

Extensions:

#1: ObjectId: 2.5.29.14 Criticality=false
SubjectKeyIdentifier [
KeyIdentifier [
0000: 54 C0 C5 9C 73 37 85 4B   F2 3B D3 37 FD 45 0A AB  T...s7.K.;.7.E..
0010: C9 6B 32 95                                        .k2.
]
]
4. Export the certificate to a file in binary format.

$keytool -export -alias myapp-cert -keystore keystore -storepass changeit -keypass changeit -file myapp-cert.crt Certificate stored in file </path/to/myapp-cert.crt> 5. Modify the entry to add attributes related to the certificate. By default, you need the userCertificate value. If you want OpenDJ to map the certificate to its fingerprint, use ds-certificate-fingerprint. This example uses the MD5 fingerprint, which corresponds to the default setting for the Fingerprint Certificate Mapper. If you want to map the certificate subject DN to an attribute of the entry, use ds-certificate-subject-dn. $ cat addcert.ldif
dn: cn=My App,ou=Apps,dc=example,dc=com
changetype: modify
objectclass: ds-certificate-user
-
ds-certificate-fingerprint: 48:AC:F9:13:11:E0:AB:C4:65:A2:83:9E:DB:FE:0C:37
-
ds-certificate-subject-dn: CN=My App, OU=Apps, DC=example, DC=com
-
userCertificate;binary:<file:///path/to/myapp-cert.crt

$ldapmodify --port 1389 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --filename addcert.ldif Processing MODIFY request for cn=My App,ou=Apps,dc=example,dc=com MODIFY operation successful for DN cn=My App,ou=Apps,dc=example,dc=com 6. Check your work. $ ldapsearch
--port 1389
--hostname opendj.example.com
--baseDN dc=example,dc=com
"(cn=My App)"
dn: cn=My App,ou=Apps,dc=example,dc=com
ds-certificate-fingerprint: 4B:F5:CF:2C:2D:B3:86:14:FF:43:A8:37:17:DD:E7:55
KCZImiZPyLGQBGRYDY29tMRcwFQYKCZImiZPyLGQBGRYHZXhhbXBsZTENMAsGA1UECxMEQXBwczEPMA
0GA1UEAxMGTXkgQXBwMB4XDTEzMDExNzE3MTEwM1oXDTEzMDQxNzE3MTEwM1owTjETMBEGCgmSJomT8
ixkARkWA2NvbTEXMBUGCgmSJomT8ixkARkWB2V4YW1wbGUxDTALBgNVBAsTBEFwcHMxDzANBgNVBAMT
X5o2yBViDMGl1sSWIRGLpFwu6iq1chndPBJYTC+FkT66yEEOwWOpSfcYdFHkMQP0qp5A8mgP6bYkeH1
ROvQ1nhLs0ILuksR10CVIQ5b1zv6bGEFhA9gSKmpHfQOSt9PXq8+kuz+4RgZk9Il28tgDNMm91wSJr7
lV3a4KTa5DlYD6cDREI6B8XlSdc1DaIhwC8CbsE0WJQoCERSURdjkuHrPck6f69HKUFRiC7JMT3dFbs
CAwEAAaMhMB8wHQYDVR0OBBYEFFTAxZxzN4VL8jvTN/1FCqvJazKVMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBCwUAA4IBAQ
BXsAIEw7I5XUzLFHvXb2N0hmW/Vmhb/Vlv9LTT8JcCRJy4zaiyS9Q+Sp9zQUkrXauFnNAhJLwpAymjZ
MCOq1Th1bw9LnIzbccPQ/1+ZHLKDU5pgnc5BcvaV6Zl6COLLH2OOt0XMZ/OrODBV1M6STfhChqcowff
xp72pWMQe+kpZfzjeDBk4kK2hUNTZsimB9qRyrDAMCIXdmdmFv1o07orxjy8c/6S1329swiiVqFckBR
aXIa8wCcXjpQbZacDODeKk6wZIKxw4miLg1YByCMa7vkUfz+Jj+JHgbHjyoT/G82mtDbX02chLgXbDm
xJPFN3mwAC7NEkSPbqd35nJlf3
objectClass: person
objectClass: inetOrgPerson
objectClass: organizationalPerson
objectClass: ds-certificate-user
objectClass: top
ds-certificate-subject-dn: CN=My App, OU=Apps, DC=example, DC=com
cn: My App
sn: App
7. When using a self-signed certificate, import the client certificate into the trust store for OpenDJ.

When the client presents its certificate to OpenDJ, by default OpenDJ has to be able to trust the client certificate before it can accept the connection. If OpenDJ cannot trust the client certificate, it cannot establish a secure connection.

$keytool -import -alias myapp-cert -file /path/to/myapp-cert.crt -keystore /path/to/opendj/config/truststore -storepass cat /path/to/opendj/config/keystore.pin Owner: CN=My App, OU=Apps, DC=example, DC=com Issuer: CN=My App, OU=Apps, DC=example, DC=com Serial number: 5ae2277 Valid from: Fri Jan 18 18:27:09 CET 2013 until: Thu Jan 13 18:27:09 CET 2033 Certificate fingerprints: MD5: 48:AC:F9:13:11:E0:AB:C4:65:A2:83:9E:DB:FE:0C:37 SHA1: F9:61:54:37:AA:C1:BC:92:45:07:64:4B:23:6C:BC:C9:CD:1D:44:0F SHA256: 2D:B1:58:CD:33:40:E9:...:FD:61:EA:C9:FF:6A:19:93:FE:E4:84:E3 Signature algorithm name: SHA256withRSA Version: 3 Extensions: #1: ObjectId: 2.5.29.14 Criticality=false SubjectKeyIdentifier [ KeyIdentifier [ 0000: 54 C0 C5 9C 73 37 85 4B F2 3B D3 37 FD 45 0A AB T...s7.K.;.7.E.. 0010: C9 6B 32 95 .k2. ] ] Trust this certificate? [no]: yes Certificate was added to keystore 8. When using a certificate signed by a CA whose certificate is not delivered with the Java runtime environment[12], import the CA certificate either into the Java runtime environment trust store, or into the OpenDJ trust store as shown in the following example. $ keytool
-import
-alias ca-cert
-file ca.crt
-keystore /path/to/opendj/config/truststore
-storepass cat /path/to/opendj/config/keystore.pin
Serial number: d4586ea05c878b0c
Valid from: Tue Jan 29 09:30:31 CET 2013 until: Mon Jan 24 09:30:31 CET 2033
Certificate fingerprints:
MD5:  8A:83:61:9B:E7:18:A2:21:CE:92:94:96:59:68:60:FA
SHA1: 01:99:18:38:3A:57:D7:92:7B:D6:03:8C:7B:E4:1D:37:45:0E:29:DA
SHA256: 5D:20:F1:86:CC:CD:64:50:1E:54:...:DF:15:43:07:69:44:00:FB:36:CF
Signature algorithm name: SHA1withRSA
Version: 3

Extensions:

#1: ObjectId: 2.5.29.35 Criticality=false
AuthorityKeyIdentifier [
KeyIdentifier [
0000: 30 07 67 7D 1F 09 B6 E6   90 85 95 58 94 37 FD 31  0.g........X.7.1
0010: 03 D4 56 7B                                        ..V.
]
SerialNumber: [    d4586ea0 5c878b0c]
]

#2: ObjectId: 2.5.29.19 Criticality=false
BasicConstraints:[
CA:true
PathLen:2147483647
]

#3: ObjectId: 2.5.29.14 Criticality=false
SubjectKeyIdentifier [
KeyIdentifier [
0000: 30 07 67 7D 1F 09 B6 E6   90 85 95 58 94 37 FD 31  0.g........X.7.1
0010: 03 D4 56 7B                                        ..V.
]
]

Trust this certificate? [no]:  yes
Certificate was added to keystore
9. If you updated the OpenDJ trust store to add a certificate, restart OpenDJ to make sure it reads the updated trust store and can recognize the certificate.

$stop-ds --restart Stopping Server... ... ... The Directory Server has started successfully Procedure 7.3. To Configure Certificate Mappers OpenDJ uses certificate mappers during binds to establish a mapping between a client certificate and the entry that corresponds to that certificate. The certificate mappers provided out of the box include the following. Fingerprint Certificate Mapper Looks for the MD5 (default) or SHA1 certificate fingerprint in an attribute of the entry (default: ds-certificate-fingerprint). Subject Attribute To User Attribute Mapper Looks for a match between an attribute of the certificate subject and an attribute of the entry (default: match cn in the certificate to cn on the entry, or match emailAddress in the certificate to mail on the entry). Subject DN to User Attribute Certificate Mapper Looks for the certificate subject DN in an attribute of the entry (default: ds-certificate-subject-dn). Subject Equals DN Certificate Mapper Looks for an entry whose DN matches the certificate subject DN. If the default configurations for the certificate mappers are acceptable, you do not need to change them. They are enabled by default. The following steps demonstrate how to change the Fingerprint Mapper default algorithm of MD5 to SHA1. 1. List the certificate mappers to retrieve the correct name. $ dsconfig
list-certificate-mappers
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"

Certificate Mapper                  : Type                                : enabled
------------------------------------:-------------------------------------:--------
Fingerprint Mapper                  : fingerprint                         : true
Subject Attribute to User Attribute : subject-attribute-to-user-attribute : true
Subject DN to User Attribute        : subject-dn-to-user-attribute        : true
Subject Equals DN                   : subject-equals-dn                   : true
2. Examine the current configuration.

$dsconfig get-certificate-mapper-prop --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --mapper-name "Fingerprint Mapper" Property : Value(s) ----------------------:--------------------------- enabled : true fingerprint-algorithm : md5 fingerprint-attribute : ds-certificate-fingerprint user-base-dn : - 3. Change the configuration as necessary. $ dsconfig
set-certificate-mapper-prop
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--mapper-name "Fingerprint Mapper"
--set fingerprint-algorithm:sha1
--no-prompt
4. Set the External SASL Mechanism Handler to use the appropriate certificate mapper (default: Subject Equals DN).

Clients applications use the SASL External mechanism during the bind to have OpenDJ set the authorization identifier based on the entry that matches the client certificate.

$dsconfig set-sasl-mechanism-handler-prop --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --handler-name External --set certificate-mapper:"Fingerprint Mapper" --no-prompt Example 7.22. Authenticate With Client Certificate Instead of providing a bind DN and password as for simple authentication, use the SASL EXTERNAL authentication mechanism, and provide the certificate. As a test with example data you can try an anonymous search, and then try with certificate-based authentication. Before you try this example, make sure OpenDJ is set up to accept StartTLS from clients, and that you have set up the client certificate as described above. Next, create a password .pin file for your client key store. $ echo changeit > keystore.pin
$chmod 400 keystore.pin Also, if OpenDJ directory server uses a certificate for StartTLS that was not signed by a well-known CA, import the appropriate certificate into the client key store, which can then double as a trust store. For example, if OpenDJ uses a self-signed certificate, import the server certificate into the key store. $ keytool
-export
-alias server-cert
-file server-cert.crt
-keystore /path/to/opendj/config/keystore
-storepass cat /path/to/opendj/config/keystore.pin
$keytool -import -trustcacerts -alias server-cert -file server-cert.crt -keystore keystore -storepass cat keystore.pin If OpenDJ directory server uses a CA-signed certificate, but the CA is not well known, import the CA certificate into your keystore. $ keytool
-import
-trustcacerts
-alias ca-cert
-file ca-cert.crt
-keystore keystore
-storepass cat keystore.pin

Now that you can try the example, notice that OpenDJ does not return the userPassword value for an anonymous search.

$ldapsearch --port 1389 --hostname opendj.example.com --baseDN dc=example,dc=com --useStartTLS --trustStorePath keystore --trustStorePasswordFile keystore.pin "(cn=My App)" userPassword dn: cn=My App,ou=Apps,dc=example,dc=com  OpenDJ does let users read the values of their own userPassword attributes after they bind successfully. $ ldapsearch
--port 1389
--hostname opendj.example.com
--baseDN dc=example,dc=com
--useStartTLS
--useSASLExternal
--certNickName myapp-cert
--keyStorePath keystore
--trustStorePath keystore
dn: cn=My App,ou=Apps,dc=example,dc=com
userPassword: {SSHA}vy/vTthOQoV/wH3MciTOBKKR4OX+0dSN/a09Ew==

You can also try the same test with other certificate mappers.

# Fingerprint mapper
$dsconfig set-sasl-mechanism-handler-prop --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --handler-name External --set certificate-mapper:"Fingerprint Mapper" --no-prompt$ ldapsearch
--port 1389
--hostname opendj.example.com
--baseDN dc=example,dc=com
--useStartTLS
--useSASLExternal
--certNickName myapp-cert
--keyStorePath keystore
--trustStorePath keystore
dn: cn=My App,ou=Apps,dc=example,dc=com

# Subject Attribute to User Attribute mapper
$dsconfig set-sasl-mechanism-handler-prop --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --handler-name External --set certificate-mapper:"Subject Attribute to User Attribute" --no-prompt$ ldapsearch
--port 1389
--hostname opendj.example.com
--baseDN dc=example,dc=com
--useStartTLS
--useSASLExternal
--certNickName myapp-cert
--keyStorePath keystore
--trustStorePath keystore
dn: cn=My App,ou=Apps,dc=example,dc=com

# Subject DN to User Attribute mapper
$dsconfig set-sasl-mechanism-handler-prop --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --handler-name External --set certificate-mapper:"Subject DN to User Attribute" --no-prompt$ ldapsearch
--port 1389
--hostname opendj.example.com
--baseDN dc=example,dc=com
--useStartTLS
--useSASLExternal
--certNickName myapp-cert
--keyStorePath keystore
--trustStorePath keystore
dn: cn=My App,ou=Apps,dc=example,dc=com
userPassword: {SSHA}vy/vTthOQoV/wH3MciTOBKKR4OX+0dSN/a09Ew==

[12] $JAVA_HOME/jre/lib/security/cacerts holds the certificates for many CAs. To get the full list, use the following command. $ keytool
-list
-v
-keystore $JAVA_HOME/jre/lib/security/cacerts -storepass changeit ## Chapter 8. Performing RESTful Operations OpenDJ lets you access directory data as JSON resources over HTTP. This chapter demonstrates basic RESTful client operations using the default configuration and sample directory data imported into OpenDJ from Example.ldif. Before trying the examples, enable HTTP access to OpenDJ directory server as described in procedure, To Set Up REST Access to OpenDJ Directory Server. Interface stability: Evolving ## 8.1. Understanding the OpenDJ REST API The OpenDJ REST API is built on a common ForgeRock HTTP-based REST API for interacting with JSON Resources. APIs built on this common layer all let you perform the following operations. Create Add a resource that does not yet exist Read Retrieve a single resource Update Replace an existing resource Delete Remove an existing resource Patch Modify part of an existing resource Action Perform a predefined action Query List a set of resources The present implementation in OpenDJ maps JSON resources onto LDAP entries, meaning REST clients can in principle do just about anything an LDAP client can do with directory data. In addition to query string parameters that depend on the operation, the examples in this chapter make use of the following parameters that apply to the JSON resource returned for all operations. _fields=field[,…] Retain only the specified fields in the JSON resource returned. _prettyPrint=true|false Make the JSON resource returned easy for humans to read. ## 8.2. Authenticating Over REST When you first try to get a resource that you can read as an LDAP entry with an anonymous search, you might be surprised that you must authenticate. $ curl http://opendj.example.com:8080/users/bjensen?_prettyPrint=true
{
"code" : 401,
"reason" : "Unauthorized",
"message" : "Unauthorized"
}

HTTP status code 401 tells your HTTP client that the request requires user authentication. You can change this behavior by setting the HTTP connection handler property, authentication-required, to false.

$dsconfig set-connection-handler-prop --hostname opendj.example.com --port 4444 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --handler-name "HTTP Connection Handler" --set authentication-required:false --no-prompt --trustAll Out of the box both the HTTP Connection Handler and also the REST LDAP gateway are configured to allow HTTP Basic authentication and HTTP header based authentication in the style of OpenIDM. The authentication mechanisms translate HTTP authentication to LDAP authentication on the directory server side. When you install OpenDJ either with generated sample user entries or with data from Example.ldif, the relative distinguished name attribute for the sample user entries is the user ID (uid) attribute. For example, the DN and user ID for Babs Jensen are as follows. dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com uid: bjensen Given this pattern in the user entries, the default REST to LDAP configuration assumes that the user name on the HTTP side is the value of the user ID, and that user entries can be found under ou=People,dc=example,dc=com. In other words, Babs Jensen authenticates as bjensen (password: hifalutin) over HTTP. This is mapped for an LDAP bind to the bind DN uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com. With HTTP Basic authentication, it looks like this. $ curl
--user bjensen:hifalutin
http://opendj.example.com:8080/users/bjensen?_prettyPrint=true
{
"_rev" : "0000000016cbb68c",
...
}

Or, using the HTTP Basic username:password@ form in the URL, it looks like this.

$curl http://bjensen:hifalutin@opendj.example.com:8080/users/bjensen?_prettyPrint=true { "_rev" : "0000000016cbb68c", ... } With HTTP header based authentication, it looks like this. $ curl
http://opendj.example.com:8080/users/bjensen?_prettyPrint=true
{
"_rev" : "0000000016cbb68c",
...
}

If your directory data are laid out differently, or if your user names are email addresses rather than user IDs for example, then you must update the configuration in order for authentication to work.

The REST LDAP gateway can also translate HTTP user name and password authentication to PLAIN SASL authentication on the LDAP side. Moreover, the gateway can fall back to proxied authorization as necessary, using a root DN authenticated connection to LDAP servers. See REST LDAP Configuration for details on all configuration choices.

## 8.3. Creating Resources

There are two ways to create resources.

• To create a resource using an ID that you specify, perform an HTTP PUT request with headers Content-Type: application/json and If-None-Match: *, and the JSON content of your resource.

The following example creates a new user entry with ID newuser.

$curl --request PUT --user kvaughan:bribery --header "Content-Type: application/json" --header "If-None-Match: *" --data '{ "_id": "newuser", "contactInformation": { "telephoneNumber": "+1 408 555 1212", "emailAddress": "newuser@example.com" }, "name": { "familyName": "New", "givenName": "User" }, "displayName": "New User", "manager": [ { "_id": "kvaughan", "displayName": "Kirsten Vaughan" } ] }' http://opendj.example.com:8080/users/newuser?_prettyPrint=true { "_rev" : "000000005b337348", "schemas" : [ "urn:scim:schemas:core:1.0" ], "contactInformation" : { "telephoneNumber" : "+1 408 555 1212", "emailAddress" : "newuser@example.com" }, "_id" : "newuser", "name" : { "familyName" : "New", "givenName" : "User" }, "userName" : "newuser@example.com", "displayName" : "New User", "meta" : { "created" : "2013-04-11T09:58:27Z" }, "manager" : [ { "_id" : "kvaughan", "displayName" : "Kirsten Vaughan" } ] } • To create a resource letting the server choose the ID, perform an HTTP POST with _action=create as described in Section 8.8, “Using Actions”. ## 8.4. Reading a Resource To read a resource, perform an HTTP GET. $ curl
--request GET
--user kvaughan:bribery
http://opendj.example.com:8080/users/newuser?_prettyPrint=true
{
"_rev" : "000000005b337348",
"schemas" : [ "urn:scim:schemas:core:1.0" ],
"contactInformation" : {
"telephoneNumber" : "+1 408 555 1212",
},
"_id" : "newuser",
"name" : {
"familyName" : "New",
"givenName" : "User"
},
"displayName" : "New User",
"meta" : {
"created" : "2013-04-11T09:58:27Z"
},
"manager" : [ {
"_id" : "kvaughan",
"displayName" : "Kirsten Vaughan"
} ]
}

## 8.5. Updating Resources

To update a resource, perform an HTTP PUT with the changes to the resource. For read-only fields, either include unmodified versions, or omit them from your updated version.

The following example adds a manager for Sam Carter.

$curl --request PUT --user kvaughan:bribery --header "Content-Type: application/json" --data '{ "contactInformation": { "telephoneNumber": "+1 408 555 4798", "emailAddress": "scarter@example.com" }, "name": { "familyName": "Carter", "givenName": "Sam" }, "userName": "scarter@example.com", "displayName": "Sam Carter", "groups": [ { "_id": "Accounting Managers" } ], "manager": [ { "_id": "trigden", "displayName": "Torrey Rigden" } ] }' http://opendj.example.com:8080/users/scarter?_prettyPrint=true { "_rev" : "00000000a1923db2", "schemas" : [ "urn:scim:schemas:core:1.0" ], "contactInformation" : { "telephoneNumber" : "+1 408 555 4798", "emailAddress" : "scarter@example.com" }, "_id" : "scarter", "name" : { "familyName" : "Carter", "givenName" : "Sam" }, "userName" : "scarter@example.com", "displayName" : "Sam Carter", "manager" : [ { "_id" : "trigden", "displayName" : "Torrey Rigden" } ], "meta" : { "lastModified" : "2013-04-12T07:42:34Z" }, "groups" : [ { "_id" : "Accounting Managers" } ] } To update a resource only if the resource matches a particular version, use an If-Match: revision header. $ curl
--user kvaughan:bribery
http://opendj.example.com:8080/users/scarter?_fields=_rev
{"_rev":"00000000b017c5b8"}
$curl --request PUT --user kvaughan:bribery --header "If-Match: 00000000b017c5b8" --header "Content-Type: application/json" --data '{ "contactInformation": { "telephoneNumber": "+1 408 555 1212", "emailAddress": "scarter@example.com" }, "name": { "familyName": "Carter", "givenName": "Sam" }, "userName": "scarter@example.com", "displayName": "Sam Carter", "groups": [ { "_id": "Accounting Managers" } ], "manager": [ { "_id": "trigden", "displayName": "Torrey Rigden" } ] }' http://opendj.example.com:8080/users/scarter?_prettyPrint=true { "_rev" : "00000000a1ee3da3", "schemas" : [ "urn:scim:schemas:core:1.0" ], "contactInformation" : { "telephoneNumber" : "+1 408 555 1212", "emailAddress" : "scarter@example.com" }, "_id" : "scarter", "name" : { "familyName" : "Carter", "givenName" : "Sam" }, "userName" : "scarter@example.com", "displayName" : "Sam Carter", "meta" : { "lastModified" : "2013-04-12T07:47:45Z" }, "groups" : [ { "_id" : "Accounting Managers" } ], "manager" : [ { "_id" : "trigden", "displayName" : "Torrey Rigden" } ] } ## 8.6. Deleting Resources To delete a resource, perform an HTTP DELETE on the resource URL. On success, the operation returns the resource you deleted. $ curl
--request DELETE
--user kvaughan:bribery
http://opendj.example.com:8080/users/newuser?_prettyPrint=true
{
"_rev" : "000000003a5f3cb2",
"schemas" : [ "urn:scim:schemas:core:1.0" ],
"contactInformation" : {
"telephoneNumber" : "+1 408 555 1212",
},
"_id" : "newuser",
"name" : {
"familyName" : "New",
"givenName" : "User"
},
"displayName" : "New User",
"meta" : {
"created" : "2013-04-11T09:58:27Z"
},
"manager" : [ {
"_id" : "kvaughan",
"displayName" : "Kirsten Vaughan"
} ]
}

To delete a resource only if the resource matches a particular version, use an If-Match: revision header.

$curl --user kvaughan:bribery http://opendj.example.com:8080/users/newuser?_fields=_rev {"_rev":"000000006d8d7358"}$ curl
--request DELETE
--user kvaughan:bribery
http://opendj.example.com:8080/users/newuser?_prettyPrint=true
{
"_rev" : "00000000383f3cae",
"schemas" : [ "urn:scim:schemas:core:1.0" ],
"contactInformation" : {
"telephoneNumber" : "+1 408 555 1212",
},
"_id" : "newuser",
"name" : {
"familyName" : "New",
"givenName" : "User"
},
"displayName" : "New User",
"meta" : {
"created" : "2013-04-11T12:48:48Z"
},
"manager" : [ {
"_id" : "kvaughan",
"displayName" : "Kirsten Vaughan"
} ]
}

To delete a resource and all its children, you must change the configuration, get the REST LDAP gateway or HTTP Connection Handler to reload its configuration, and perform the operation as a user who has the access rights required. The following steps show one way to do this with the HTTP Connection Handler.

In this case the LDAP view of the user to delete shows two child entries.

$ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN uid=nbohr,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com "(&)" dn dn: uid=nbohr,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com dn: cn=quantum dot,uid=nbohr,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com dn: cn=qubit generator,uid=nbohr,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com 1. In the configuration file for the HTTP Connection Handler, by default /path/to/opendj/config/http-config.json, set "useSubtreeDelete" : true. ### Note After this change, only users who have access to request a tree delete can delete resources. 2. Force the HTTP Connection Handler to reread its configuration. $ dsconfig
set-connection-handler-prop
--hostname opendj.example.com
--port 4444
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--handler-name "HTTP Connection Handler"
--set enabled:false
--no-prompt
$dsconfig set-connection-handler-prop --hostname opendj.example.com --port 4444 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --handler-name "HTTP Connection Handler" --set enabled:true --no-prompt 3. Delete as a user who has rights to perform a subtree delete on the resource. $ curl
--request DELETE
--user kvaughan:bribery
http://opendj.example.com:8080/users/nbohr?_prettyPrint=true
{
"_rev" : "000000003d912113",
"schemas" : [ "urn:scim:schemas:core:1.0" ],
"contactInformation" : {
"telephoneNumber" : "+1 408 555 1212",
},
"_id" : "nbohr",
"name" : {
"familyName" : "Bohr",
"givenName" : "Niels"
},
"displayName" : "Niels Bohr"
}

## 8.7. Patching Resources

OpenDJ lets you patch JSON resources, updating part of the resource rather than replacing it. For example, you could change Babs Jensen's email address by issuing an HTTP PATCH request, as in the example that follows.

Notice that the data sent specifies the type of patch operation, the field to change, and a value that depends on the field you change and on the operation. A single-valued field takes an object, boolean, string, or number depending on its type, whereas a multi-valued field takes an array of values. Getting the type wrong results in an error. Also notice that the patch data is itself an array, since you could patch more than one part of the resource by using a set of patch operations in the same request.

$curl --user kvaughan:bribery --request PATCH --header "Content-Type: application/json" --data '[ { "operation": "replace", "field": "/contactInformation/emailAddress", "value": "babs@example.com" } ]' http://opendj.example.com:8080/users/bjensen?_prettyPrint=true { "_rev" : "00000000f3fdd370", "schemas" : [ "urn:scim:schemas:core:1.0" ], "contactInformation" : { "telephoneNumber" : "+1 408 555 1862", "emailAddress" : "babs@example.com" }, "_id" : "bjensen", "name" : { "familyName" : "Jensen", "givenName" : "Barbara" }, "userName" : "babs@example.com", "displayName" : "Barbara Jensen", "meta" : { "lastModified" : "2013-05-13T14:35:31Z" }, "manager" : [ { "_id" : "trigden", "displayName" : "Torrey Rigden" } ] } OpenDJ supports four types of patch operation. "add" The add operation ensures that the target field contains the value provided, creating parent fields as necessary. If the target field is single-valued and a value already exists, then that value is replaced with the value you provide. Note that you do not get an error when adding a value to a single-valued field that already has a value. A single-valued field is one whose value is not an array (an object, string, boolean, or number). If the target field is multi-valued, then the array of values you provide is merged with the set of values already in the resource. New values are added, and duplicate values are ignored. A multi-valued field takes an array value. "remove" The remove operation ensures that the target field does not contain the value provided. If you do not provide a value, the entire field is removed if it already exists. If the target field is single-valued and a value is provided, then the provided value must match the existing value to remove, otherwise the field is left unchanged. If the target field is multi-valued, then values in the array you provide are removed from the existing set of values. "replace" The replace operation removes existing values on the target field, and replaces them with the values you provide. It is equivalent to performing a remove on the field, then an add with the values you provide. "increment" The increment operation increments or decrements the value or values in the target field by the amount you specify, which is positive to increment, negative to decrement. The target field must be a number or a set of numbers. The value you provide must be a single number. One key nuance in how patch works with OpenDJ has to do with multi-valued fields. Although JSON resources represent multi-valued fields as arrays, OpenDJ treats those values as sets. In other words, values in the field are unique, and the ordering of an array of values is not meaningful in the context of patch operations. If you reference array values by index, OpenDJ returns an error.[13] Instead use the patch operations as if arrays values were sets. For example, you can include Barbara Jensen in a group by adding her to the set of members. $ curl
--user kvaughan:bribery
--request PATCH
--data '[
{
"field": "/members",
"value": [
{
"_id": "bjensen"
}
]
}
]'
?_prettyPrint=true
{
"_rev" : "00000000b70c881a",
"schemas" : [ "urn:scim:schemas:core:1.0" ],
"meta" : {
"lastModified" : "2013-05-13T16:40:23Z"
},
"members" : [ {
"_id" : "kvaughan",
"displayName" : "Kirsten Vaughan"
}, {
"_id" : "rdaugherty",
"displayName" : "Robert Daugherty"
}, {
"_id" : "bjensen",
"displayName" : "Barbara Jensen"
}, {
"_id" : "hmiller",
"displayName" : "Harry Miller"
} ]
}

Removing her from the group is similar.

$curl --user kvaughan:bribery --request PATCH --header "Content-Type: application/json" --data '[ { "operation": "remove", "field": "/members", "value": [ { "_id": "bjensen" } ] } ]' http://opendj.example.com:8080/groups/Directory%20Administrators ?_prettyPrint=true { "_rev" : "00000000e241797e", "schemas" : [ "urn:scim:schemas:core:1.0" ], "_id" : "Directory Administrators", "displayName" : "Directory Administrators", "meta" : { "lastModified" : "2013-05-13T16:40:55Z" }, "members" : [ { "_id" : "kvaughan", "displayName" : "Kirsten Vaughan" }, { "_id" : "rdaugherty", "displayName" : "Robert Daugherty" }, { "_id" : "hmiller", "displayName" : "Harry Miller" } ] } You can use resource revision numbers in If-Match: revision headers to patch the resource only if the resource matches a particular version. $ curl
--user kvaughan:bribery
"http://opendj.example.com:8080/users/bjensen?_prettyPrint=true&_fields=_rev"
{
"_rev" : "00000000c1b6d4c7"
}
$curl --user kvaughan:bribery --request PATCH --header "If-Match: 00000000c1b6d4c7" --header "Content-Type: application/json" --data '[ { "operation": "add", "field": "/contactInformation/emailAddress", "value": "babs@example.com" } ]' http://opendj.example.com:8080/users/bjensen?_prettyPrint=true { "_rev" : "00000000f946d377", "schemas" : [ "urn:scim:schemas:core:1.0" ], "contactInformation" : { "telephoneNumber" : "+1 408 555 1862", "emailAddress" : "babs@example.com" }, "_id" : "bjensen", "name" : { "familyName" : "Jensen", "givenName" : "Barbara" }, "userName" : "babs@example.com", "displayName" : "Barbara Jensen", "meta" : { "lastModified" : "2013-05-13T16:56:33Z" }, "manager" : [ { "_id" : "trigden", "displayName" : "Torrey Rigden" } ] } The resource revision changes after you successfully perform the patch operation. ## 8.8. Using Actions OpenDJ implements an action that lets the server set the resource ID on creation. To use this action, perform an HTTP POST with header Content-Type: application/json, _action=create in the query string, and the JSON content of your resource. The following example creates a new user entry. $ curl
--request POST
--user kvaughan:bribery
--data '{
"_id": "newuser",
"contactInformation": {
"telephoneNumber": "+1 408 555 1212",
},
"name": {
"familyName": "New",
"givenName": "User"
},
"displayName": "New User",
"manager": [
{
"_id": "kvaughan",
"displayName": "Kirsten Vaughan"
}
]
}'
"http://opendj.example.com:8080/users?_action=create&_prettyPrint=true"
{
"_rev" : "0000000034a23ca7",
"schemas" : [ "urn:scim:schemas:core:1.0" ],
"contactInformation" : {
"telephoneNumber" : "+1 408 555 1212",
},
"_id" : "newuser",
"name" : {
"familyName" : "New",
"givenName" : "User"
},
"displayName" : "New User",
"meta" : {
"created" : "2013-04-11T11:19:08Z"
},
"manager" : [ {
"_id" : "kvaughan",
"displayName" : "Kirsten Vaughan"
} ]
}

## 8.9. Querying Resource Collections

To query resource collections, perform an HTTP GET with a _queryFilter=filter parameter in your query string.

For query operations, your filter expressions are constructed from the following building blocks. Make sure you URL encode the filter expressions, which are shown here without URL encoding to make them easier to read.

In these expressions the simplest json-pointer is a field of the JSON resource, such as userName or id. A json-pointer can however point to nested elements as described in the JSON Pointer Internet-Draft.

Comparison expressions

You can build filters using the following comparison expressions.

json-pointer eq json-value

Matches when the pointer equals the value, as in the following example.

$curl --user kvaughan:bribery 'http://opendj.example.com:8080 /users?_queryFilter=userName+eq+"bjensen@example.com"&_prettyPrint=true' { "result" : [ { "_rev" : "00000000315fb731", "schemas" : [ "urn:scim:schemas:core:1.0" ], "manager" : [ { "_id" : "trigden", "displayName" : "Torrey Rigden" } ], "contactInformation" : { "telephoneNumber" : "+1 408 555 1862", "emailAddress" : "bjensen@example.com" }, "_id" : "bjensen", "name" : { "familyName" : "Jensen", "givenName" : "Barbara" }, "userName" : "bjensen@example.com", "displayName" : "Barbara Jensen" } ], "resultCount" : 1, "pagedResultsCookie" : null, "remainingPagedResults" : -1 } json-pointer co json-value Matches when the pointer contains the value, as in the following example. $ curl --user kvaughan:bribery 'http://opendj.example.com:8080
{
"result" : [ {
}, {
}, {
}, {
}, {
}, {
}, {
} ],
"resultCount" : 7,
"remainingPagedResults" : -1
}
json-pointer sw json-value

Matches when the pointer starts with the value, as in the following example.

$curl --user kvaughan:bribery 'http://opendj.example.com:8080 /users?_queryFilter=userName+sw+"ab"&_fields=userName&_prettyPrint=true' { "result" : [ { "userName" : "abarnes@example.com" }, { "userName" : "abergin@example.com" } ], "resultCount" : 2, "pagedResultsCookie" : null, "remainingPagedResults" : -1 } json-pointer lt json-value Matches when the pointer is less than the value, as in the following example. $ curl --user kvaughan:bribery 'http://opendj.example.com:8080
{
"result" : [ {
}, {
} ],
"resultCount" : 2,
"remainingPagedResults" : -1
}
json-pointer le json-value

Matches when the pointer is less than or equal to the value, as in the following example.

$curl --user kvaughan:bribery 'http://opendj.example.com:8080 /users?_queryFilter=userName+le+"ad"&_fields=userName&_prettyPrint=true' { "result" : [ { "userName" : "abarnes@example.com" }, { "userName" : "abergin@example.com" }, { "userName" : "achassin@example.com" } ], "resultCount" : 3, "pagedResultsCookie" : null, "remainingPagedResults" : -1 } json-pointer gt json-value Matches when the pointer is greater than the value, as in the following example. $ curl --user kvaughan:bribery 'http://opendj.example.com:8080
{
"result" : [ {
}, {
}, {
} ],
"resultCount" : 3,
"remainingPagedResults" : -1
}
json-pointer ge json-value

Matches when the pointer is greater than or equal to the value, as in the following example.

$curl --user kvaughan:bribery 'http://opendj.example.com:8080 /users?_queryFilter=userName+ge+"tw"&_fields=userName&_prettyPrint=true' { "result" : [ { "userName" : "tward@example.com" }, { "userName" : "wlutz@example.com" } ], "resultCount" : 2, "pagedResultsCookie" : null, "remainingPagedResults" : -1 } Presence expression json-pointer pr matches any resource on which the json-pointer is present, as in the following example. $ curl --user kvaughan:bribery 'http://opendj.example.com:8080
{
"result" : [ {
"_rev" : "000000002210a544",
"schemas" : [ "urn:scim:schemas:core:1.0" ],
"manager" : [ {
"_id" : "scarter",
"displayName" : "Sam Carter"
} ],
"contactInformation" : {
"telephoneNumber" : "+1 408 555 9445",
},
"_id" : "abarnes",
"name" : {
"familyName" : "Barnes",
"givenName" : "Anne-Louise"
},
"displayName" : "Anne-Louise Barnes"
},… many entries omitted …
"_id" : "newuser",
"name" : {
"familyName" : "New",
"givenName" : "User"
},
"displayName" : "New User",
"meta" : {
"created" : "2013-03-26T10:52:42Z"
}
} ],
"resultCount" : 152,
"remainingPagedResults" : -1
}
Literal expressions

true matches any resource in the collection.

false matches no resource in the collection.

In other words you can list all resources in a collection as in the following example.

$curl --user kvaughan:bribery 'http://opendj.example.com:8080 /groups?_queryFilter=true&_fields=displayName&_prettyPrint=true' { "result" : [ { "displayName" : "Accounting Managers" }, { "displayName" : "Directory Administrators" }, { "displayName" : "HR Managers" }, { "displayName" : "PD Managers" }, { "displayName" : "QA Managers" } ], "resultCount" : 5, "pagedResultsCookie" : null, "remainingPagedResults" : -1 } Complex expressions You can combine expressions using boolean operators and, or, and ! (not), using parentheses, (expression), to group expressions. The following example queries resources with last name Jensen and manager name starting with Bar. Notice that the filters use the JSON pointers name/familyName and manager/displayName to identify the fields that are nested inside the name and manager objects. $ curl --user kvaughan:bribery 'http://opendj.example.com:8080
&_fields=displayName&_prettyPrint=true'
{
"result" : [ {
"displayName" : "Jody Jensen"
}, {
"displayName" : "Ted Jensen"
} ],
"resultCount" : 2,
"remainingPagedResults" : -1
}

You can page through search results using the following query string parameters.

_pagedResultsCookie=string

Opaque cookie used by the server to keep track of the position in the search results. In the request _pageSize must also be set and non-zero. You receive the cookie value from the server on the first request, and then supply the cookie value in subsequent requests until the server returns a null cookie, meaning that the final page of results has been returned.

_pagedResultsOffset=integer

When _pageSize is non-zero, use this as an index in the result set indicating the first page to return. When the value of _pagedResultsOffset is less than 1, the server returns the next page after the last page returned. When the value is greater than or equal to 1, the server returns the page starting from the specified index.

_pageSize=integer

Return query results in pages of this size. After the initial request, use _pagedResultsCookie to page through the results.

The following example demonstrates the use of paged results. The first call requests 5 results per page, and retrieves the first page. The next call provides the cookie to request the next 5 results. The final call provides the cookie and requests the 10th page of results after the last page of results that the server returned.

$curl "http://bjensen:hifalutin@opendj.example.com:8080/users ?_queryFilter=true&_fields=userName&_prettyPrint=true&_pageSize=5" { "result" : [ { "userName" : "abarnes@example.com" }, { "userName" : "abergin@example.com" }, { "userName" : "achassin@example.com" }, { "userName" : "ahall@example.com" }, { "userName" : "ahel@example.com" } ], "resultCount" : 5, "pagedResultsCookie" : "AAAAAAAAAA8=", "remainingPagedResults" : -1 }$ curl "http://bjensen:hifalutin@opendj.example.com:8080/users
{
"result" : [ {
}, {
}, {
}, {
}, {
} ],
"resultCount" : 5,
"remainingPagedResults" : -1
}

$curl "http://bjensen:hifalutin@opendj.example.com:8080/users ?_queryFilter=true&_fields=userName&_prettyPrint=true&_pageSize=5 &_pagedResultsCookie=AAAAAAAAAA8=&_pagedResultsOffset=10" { "result" : [ { "userName" : "gtriplet@example.com" }, { "userName" : "gtyler@example.com" }, { "userName" : "hmiller@example.com" }, { "userName" : "jbourke@example.com" }, { "userName" : "jbrown@example.com" } ], "resultCount" : 5, "pagedResultsCookie" : "AAAAAAAAAEY=", "remainingPagedResults" : -1 } Notice that "remainingPagedResults" : -1 in each case meaning that the number of remaining results is not known. [13] OpenDJ does let you use a hyphen as the last element of the "field" JSON pointer value to add an element to the set, as in curl --user kvaughan:bribery --request PATCH --header "Content-Type: application/json" --data '[{ "operation" : "add", "field" : "/members/-", "value" : { "_id" : "bjensen" } }]' http://opendj.example.com:8080/groups/Directory%20Administrators. ## Chapter 9. Indexing Attribute Values OpenDJ provides several indexing schemes to speed up searches. When a client requests a directory search operation, the client sends the server a filter expression such as (&(uid=*jensen*)(l=Stavanger)). The server then uses applicable indexes to find entries with attribute values likely to match the search. If no indexes are applicable, then the server potentially has to go through all entries to look for candidate matches. Looking through all entries is resource-intensive for large directories. For this reason, the unindexed-search privilege, allowing users to request searches for which no applicable index exists, is reserved for the directory root user by default. Rather than granting the unindexed-search privilege to more users and client applications, you configure indexes to correspond to the searches that clients need to perform. See Section 9.2, “Determining What Needs Indexing” for details. This chapter first describes index types, and demonstrates how to index attribute values. This chapter also lists the default indexing configuration for OpenDJ directory server. ## 9.1. Index Types & What Each Does OpenDJ provides several different index types, each corresponding to a different type of search. ### 9.1.1. Approximate Index An approximate index is used to match values that "sound like" those provided in the filter. An approximate index on cn allows clients to find people even when they misspell names as in the following example. $ ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com "(cn~=Babs Jansen)" cn
dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
cn: Barbara Jensen
cn: Babs Jensen

### 9.1.2. Equality Index

An equality index is used to match values that correspond exactly (though generally without case sensitivity) to the value provided in the search filter. An equality index requires clients to match values without wildcards or misspellings.

$ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com "(uid=bjensen)" mail dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com mail: bjensen@example.com ### 9.1.3. Ordering Index An ordering index is used to match values for a filter that specifies a range. The ds-sync-hist has an ordering index by default because searches on that attribute often seek entries with changes more recent than the last time a search was performed. The following example shows a search that specifies ranges. $ ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com
"(&(uidNumber>=1120)(roomNumber>=4500))" uid
dn: uid=charvey,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
uid: charvey

dn: uid=eward,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
uid: eward

dn: uid=mvaughan,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
uid: mvaughan

dn: uid=pchassin,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
uid: pchassin

### 9.1.4. Presence Index

A presence index is used to match the fact that an attribute is present on the entry, regardless of the value. The aci attribute is indexed for presence by default to allow quick retrieval of entries with ACIs.

$ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com "(aci=*)" - dn: dc=example,dc=com dn: ou=People,dc=example,dc=com ### 9.1.5. Substring Index A substring index is used to match values specified with wildcards in the filter. Substring indexes can be expensive to maintain, especially for large attribute values. $ ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com "(cn=Barb*)" cn
dn: uid=bfrancis,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
cn: Barbara Francis

dn: uid=bhal2,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
cn: Barbara Hall

dn: uid=bjablons,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
cn: Barbara Jablonski

dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
cn: Barbara Jensen
cn: Babs Jensen

cn: Barbara Maddox

### 9.1.6. Virtual List View (Browsing) Index

A VLV or browsing index are designed to help the server respond to client applications that need virtual list view results, for example to browse through a long list in a GUI. They also help the server respond to clients that request server-side sorting of the search results.

VLV indexes correspond to particular searches. Configure your VLV indexes using the Control Panel, and copy the command-line equivalent from the Details pane for the operation, if necessary.

### 9.1.7. Extensible Matching Rule Index

In some cases you need an index for a matching rule other than those described above. For example, OpenDJ supports generalized time based matching so applications can search for all times later than, or earlier than a specified time.

## 9.2. Determining What Needs Indexing

OpenDJ search performance depends on indexes. As mentioned above, unindexed searches are so resource intensive that by default OpenDJ refuses to perform unindexed searches. This is because, in order to find candidate matches for an unindexed search, OpenDJ has to scan the entire directory database. Most searches should therefore use indexes.

A simple way of checking the indexes that match a search is to request the debugsearchindex attribute in your results.

$ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password "(uid=user.1000)" debugsearchindex dn: cn=debugsearch debugsearchindex: filter=(uid=user.1000)[INDEX:uid.equality][COUNT:1] final=[COU NT:1] When you request the debugsearchindex attribute, instead of performing the search, OpenDJ returns debug information indicating how it would process the search operation. In the example above you notice OpenDJ hits the equality index for uid right away. A less exact search requires more work from OpenDJ. In the following example OpenDJ would have to return over 10,000 entries. $ ldapsearch
--port 1389
--baseDN dc=example,dc=com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
"(uid=*)"
debugsearchindex
dn: cn=debugsearch
debugsearchindex: filter=(uid=*)[NOT-INDEXED] scope=wholeSubtree[LIMIT-EXCEEDED:
10002] final=[NOT-INDEXED]

By default OpenDJ rejects unindexed searches when the number of candidate entries goes beyond the search or look-though limit.

$ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com "(uid=*)" SEARCH operation failed Result Code: 50 (Insufficient Access Rights) Additional Information: You do not have sufficient privileges to perform an unindexed search When an unindexed search is performed, it shows up in the access log with the unindexed label. ...SEARCH RES ... result=50 message="You do not have sufficient privileges to perform an unindexed search" nentries=0 unindexed etime=1 If directory users tell you their client applications are getting this error, then you can work with them either to help them make their search filter specific enough to use existing indexes, or to index attributes they need indexed in order to perform their searches. For example, if a directory client application is having trouble performing a search with a filters such as (objectClass=person), you can suggest that they adjust the search to be more specific, such as (&(mail=username@maildomain.net)(objectClass=person)), so that the server can use an index, in this case equality for mail, to limit the number of candidate entries to check for matches. You can view and edit what is indexed through OpenDJ Control Panel, Indexes > Manage Indexes. Alternatively you can manage indexes using the command-line tools demonstrated in Section 9.3, “Configuring & Rebuilding Indexes”. If an index already exists, but you suspect it is not working properly, see Section 9.4, “Verifying Indexes”, too. If you do need to allow some applications to perform unindexed searches, because they need to retrieve very large numbers of entries for example, then you can assign them the unindexed-search privilege. See Configuring Privileges for details. A successful unindexed search also shows up in the access log with the label unindexed, usually with a large etime as well. ...SEARCH RES conn=11 op=1 msgID=2 result=0 nentries=10000 unindexed etime=1129 There is a trade off between the cost of maintaining an index and the value the index has in speeding up searches. Although monitoring index use is not something to leave active in production due to the additional cost and memory needed to maintain the statistics, in a test environment you can activate index analysis using the dsconfig set-backend-prop command. $ dsconfig
set-backend-prop
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--backend-name userRoot
--set index-filter-analyzer-enabled:true
--no-prompt
--trustAll

The command causes OpenDJ to analyze filters used and keep the results in memory, so that you can read them through the cn=monitor interface.

$ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN "cn=userRoot Database Environment,cn=monitor" --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password "(objectclass=*)" filter-use dn: cn=userRoot Database Environment,cn=monitor filter-use: (mail=aa*@maildomain.net) hits:1 maxmatches:0 message: filter-use: (objectClass=*) hits:1 maxmatches:-1 message:presence index type is disabled for the objectClass attribute filter-use: (uid=user.1000) hits:2 maxmatches:1 message: filter-use: (uid=user.1001) hits:1 maxmatches:1 message: filter-use: (cn=aa*) hits:1 maxmatches:10 message: filter-use: (cn=b*) hits:1 maxmatches:834 message: The filter-use values consist of the filter, followed by hits being the number of times the filter was used, followed by maxmatches being the number of matches found for the filter, followed by a message. You can turn off index analysis with the dsconfig set-backend-prop command as well. $ dsconfig
set-backend-prop
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--backend-name userRoot
--set index-filter-analyzer-enabled:false
--no-prompt
--trustAll

## 9.3. Configuring & Rebuilding Indexes

You modify index configurations using the dsconfig command. The configuration changes then take effect after you rebuild the index according to the new configuration, using the rebuild-index. The dsconfig --help-database command lists subcommands for creating, reading, updating, and deleting index configuration.

### Tip

Indexes are per directory backend rather than per suffix. To maintain separate indexes for different suffixes on the same directory server, put the suffixes in different backends.

### 9.3.1. Configuring a Standard Index

You can configure standard indexes from the Control Panel, and also on the command line using the dsconfig command. After you finish configuring the index, you must rebuild the index for the changes to take effect.

Example 9.1. Create a New Index

The following example creates a new substring index for description.

$dsconfig create-local-db-index --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --backend-name userRoot --index-name description --set index-type:substring --trustAll --no-prompt Example 9.2. Configure an Approximate Index The following example configures an approximate index for cn (common name). $ dsconfig
set-local-db-index-prop
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--backend-name userRoot
--index-name cn
--set index-type:approximate
--trustAll
--no-prompt

Example 9.3. Configure an Extensible Match Index

The OpenDJ Control Panel New Index window does not help you set up extensible matching rule indexes. Use the dsconfig command instead.

The following example configures an extensible matching rule index for "later than" and "earlier than" generalized time matching on a lastLoginTime attribute.

$dsconfig create-local-db-index --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --backend-name userRoot --set index-type:extensible --set index-extensible-matching-rule:1.3.6.1.4.1.26027.1.4.5 --set index-extensible-matching-rule:1.3.6.1.4.1.26027.1.4.6 --index-name lastLoginTime --trustAll --no-prompt ### 9.3.2. Configuring a Virtual List View Index In the OpenDJ Control Panel, select Manage Indexes > New VLV Index..., and then set up your VLV index using the New VLV Index window. After you finish configuring your index and click OK, the Control Panel prompts you to make the additional changes necessary to complete the VLV index configuration, and then to build the index. You can also create the equivalent index configuration using the dsconfig command. $ dsconfig
create-local-db-vlv-index
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDn "cn=Directory Manager"
--backend-name userRoot
--index-name people-by-last-name
--set base-dn:ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
--set filter:"(|(givenName=*)(sn=*))"
--set scope:single-level
--set sort-order:"+sn +givenName"
--trustAll
--no-prompt

### Note

When referring to a virtual list view (VLV) index after creation, you must add vlv. as a prefix. In other words, if you named the VLV index people-by-last-name, you refer to it as vlv.people-by-last-name when rebuilding indexes, changing index properties such as the index entry limit, or verifying indexes.

### 9.3.3. Rebuilding Indexes

After you change an index configuration, or when you find that an index is corrupt, you can rebuild the index. When you rebuild indexes, you specify the base DN of the data to index, and either the list of indexes to rebuild or --rebuildAll. You can rebuild indexes while the server is offline, or while the server is online. If you rebuild the index while the server is online, then you must schedule the rebuild process as a task.

Example 9.4. Rebuild Index

The following example rebuilds the cn index immediately with the server online.

$rebuild-index --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --baseDN dc=example,dc=com --index cn --start 0 Rebuild Index task 20110607171639867 scheduled to start Jun 7, 2011 5:16:39 PM Example 9.5. Rebuild Degraded Indexes The following example rebuilds degraded indexes immediately with the server online. $ rebuild-index
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--baseDN dc=example,dc=com
...
[31/Jan/2012:16:43:25 +0100] severity="NOTICE" msgCount=7 msgID=8847510
message="Due to changes in the configuration, index
dc_example_dc_com_description is currently operating in a degraded state
and must be rebuilt before it can be used"
[31/Jan/2012:16:43:25 +0100] severity="NOTICE" msgCount=8 msgID=8847591
message="Rebuild of all degraded indexes started with 160 total entries
to process"
...
[31/Jan/2012:16:43:25 +0100] severity="NOTICE" msgCount=10 msgID=8847493
message="Rebuild complete. Processed 160 entries in 0 seconds (average
rate 1860.5/sec)"
...
Rebuild Index task 20120131164324838 has been successfully completed

Example 9.6. Clear New, Unused, "Degraded" Indexes

When you add a new attribute as described in Updating Directory Schema, and then create indexes for the new attribute, the new indexes appear as degraded, even though the attribute has not yet been used, and so indexes are sure to be empty, rather than degraded.

In this special case, you can safely use the rebuild-index command --clearDegradedState option to avoid having to scan the entire directory backend to rebuild the new, unused index. This is shown in the following example, where an index has just been created for newUnusedAttribute.

$dbtest list-index-status --backendID userRoot --baseDN dc=example,dc=com | grep newUnusedAttribute newUnusedAttribute.equality Index ...newUnusedAttribute.equality false... newUnusedAttribute.presence Index ...newUnusedAttribute.presence false... newUnusedAttribute.substring Index ...newUnusedAttribute.substring false...$ rebuild-index
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--baseDN dc=example,dc=com
--index newUnusedAttribute
--start 0
Rebuild Index task 20130211175925012 scheduled to start Feb 11, 2013 5:59:25
PM CET
$dbtest list-index-status --backendID userRoot --baseDN dc=example,dc=com | grep newUnusedAttribute newUnusedAttribute.equality Index ...newUnusedAttribute.equality true... newUnusedAttribute.presence Index ...newUnusedAttribute.presence true... newUnusedAttribute.substring Index ...newUnusedAttribute.substring true... If the newly indexed attribute has already been used, rebuild indexes instead. ### 9.3.4. Changing Index Entry Limits As the number of entries in your directory grows, it can make sense not to maintain indexes for particular values. For example, every entry in the directory has the value top for the objectClass attribute, so maintaining a list of entries that match the filter (objectClass=top) is not a reasonable use of resources. In a very, very large directory, the same can be true for (givenName=John) and (sn=Smith). In an index, each index key points to a list of entries that are candidates to match. For the objectClass index key that corresponds to =top, the list of entries can include every entry in the directory. OpenDJ directory server therefore defines an index entry limit. When the number of entries that an index key points to exceeds the index entry limit, OpenDJ stops maintaining the list of entries for that index key. The default index entry limit value is 4000. 4000 is intended to be large enough for most index keys, though it prevents OpenDJ from maintaining indexes at any cost. You can use the dbtest command to evaluate how well attributes are indexed, and consider whether to change the index entry limit. Non-zero values in the "Undefined" column indicate the number of index keys that have reached the limit and are no longer maintained. The "Undefined keys" are then listed below. $ dbtest list-index-status --backendID userRoot --baseDN dc=example,dc=com
Index Name                 Index Type  JE Database Name                             Index Valid  Record Count  Undefined  95%  90%  85%
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
id2children                Index       dc_example_dc_com_id2children                true         2             1          0    0    0
id2subtree                 Index       dc_example_dc_com_id2subtree                 true         2             2          0    0    0
uid.equality               Index       dc_example_dc_com_uid.equality               true         10000         0          0    0    0
aci.presence               Index       dc_example_dc_com_aci.presence               true         0             0          0    0    0
ds-sync-conflict.equality  Index       dc_example_dc_com_ds-sync-conflict.equality  true         0             0          0    0    0
givenName.equality         Index       dc_example_dc_com_givenName.equality         true         8605          0          0    0    0
givenName.substring        Index       dc_example_dc_com_givenName.substring        true         19629         0          0    0    0
objectClass.equality       Index       dc_example_dc_com_objectClass.equality       true         6             4          0    0    0
member.equality            Index       dc_example_dc_com_member.equality            true         0             0          0    0    0
uniqueMember.equality      Index       dc_example_dc_com_uniqueMember.equality      true         0             0          0    0    0
cn.equality                Index       dc_example_dc_com_cn.equality                true         10000         0          0    0    0
cn.substring               Index       dc_example_dc_com_cn.substring               true         86040         0          0    0    0
sn.equality                Index       dc_example_dc_com_sn.equality                true         10000         0          0    0    0
sn.substring               Index       dc_example_dc_com_sn.substring               true         32217         0          0    0    0
telephoneNumber.equality   Index       dc_example_dc_com_telephoneNumber.equality   true         10000         0          0    0    0
telephoneNumber.substring  Index       dc_example_dc_com_telephoneNumber.substring  true         73235         0          0    0    0
ds-sync-hist.ordering      Index       dc_example_dc_com_ds-sync-hist.ordering      true         0             0          0    0    0
mail.equality              Index       dc_example_dc_com_mail.equality              true         10000         0          0    0    0
mail.substring             Index       dc_example_dc_com_mail.substring             true         31235         15         0    0    0
entryUUID.equality         Index       dc_example_dc_com_entryUUID.equality         true         10002         0          0    0    0

Total: 20

Index: objectClass.equality
Undefined keys: [inetorgperson] [organizationalperson] [person] [top]

Index: id2children
Undefined keys: [2]

Index: mail.substring
Undefined keys: [.net] [@maild] [aildom] [ain.ne] [domain] [et] [ildoma] [in.net] [ldomai] [maildo] [main.n] [n.net] [net] [omain.] [t]

Index: id2subtree
Undefined keys: [1] [2]

In this case (for a directory with only about 10,000 entries) the list of undefined keys is perfectly reasonable. Every user entry has the object classes listed, and every user entry has a mail address ending in @maildomain.net, so those values are not specific enough to be used in search filters. The id2children and id2subtree are for OpenDJ's internal use.

For an explanation of the output of the dbtest list-index-status command, see dbtest(1).

If you do find the limit is too low for a certain key, you can change the index entry limit on a per index basis.

Example 9.7. Change Index Entry Limit

The following example changes the index entry limit for the objectClass index, and then rebuilds the index for the configuration change to take effect. The example is contrived, but the steps are the same for any other index.

### Important

Changing the index entry limit significantly can result in serious performance degradation. Be prepared to test performance thoroughly before you roll out an index entry limit change in production.

$dsconfig set-local-db-index-prop --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --backend-name userRoot --index-name objectClass --set index-entry-limit:5000 --trustAll --no-prompt$ rebuild-index
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--baseDN dc=example,dc=com
--index objectclass
--start 0
Rebuild Index task 20110607160349596 scheduled to start Jun 7, 2011 4:03:49 PM

Alternatively, you can configure the index entry limit for all indexes stored in a backend by using the dsconfig set-backend-prop command with the --backend-name backendName --set index-entry-limit:limitValue options.

## 9.4. Verifying Indexes

You can verify that indexes correspond to current directory data, and that indexes do not contain errors using the verify-index command.

Example 9.8. Verify Index

The following example verifies the cn (common name) index for completeness and for errors.

$verify-index --baseDN dc=example,dc=com --index cn --clean --countErrors [07/Jun/2011:16:06:50 +0200] category=BACKEND severity=INFORMATION msgID=9437595 msg=Local DB backend userRoot does not specify the number of lock tables: defaulting to 97 [07/Jun/2011:16:06:50 +0200] category=BACKEND severity=INFORMATION msgID=9437594 msg=Local DB backend userRoot does not specify the number of cleaner threads: defaulting to 24 threads [07/Jun/2011:16:06:51 +0200] category=JEB severity=NOTICE msgID=8847461 msg=Checked 1316 records and found 0 error(s) in 0 seconds (average rate 2506.7/sec) [07/Jun/2011:16:06:51 +0200] category=JEB severity=INFORMATION msgID=8388710 msg=Number of records referencing more than one entry: 315 [07/Jun/2011:16:06:51 +0200] category=JEB severity=INFORMATION msgID=8388711 msg=Number of records that exceed the entry limit: 0 [07/Jun/2011:16:06:51 +0200] category=JEB severity=INFORMATION msgID=8388712 msg=Average number of entries referenced is 1.58/record [07/Jun/2011:16:06:51 +0200] category=JEB severity=INFORMATION msgID=8388713 msg=Maximum number of entries referenced by any record is 32 Ignore the messages regarding lock tables and cleaner threads. The important information is whether any errors are found in the indexes. ## 9.5. Default Indexes When you first install OpenDJ directory server and import your data from LDIF, the following indexes are configured. Table 9.1. Default Indexes IndexApprox.EqualityOrderingPresenceSubstringEntry Limit aci---Yes-4000 cn-Yes--Yes4000 dn2idNon-configurable internal index ds-sync-conflict-Yes---4000 ds-sync-hist--Yes--4000 entryUUID-Yes---4000 givenName-Yes--Yes4000 id2childrenNon-configurable internal index id2subtreeNon-configurable internal index mail-Yes--Yes4000 member-Yes---4000 objectClass-Yes---4000 sn-Yes--Yes4000 telephone­Number-Yes--Yes4000 uid-Yes---4000 unique­Member-Yes---4000 When you create a JE backend using the dsconfig command, OpenDJ creates the aci presence, ds-sync-conflict equality, ds-sync-hist ordering, entryUUID equality, and objectClass equality indexes automatically. ## Chapter 10. Managing Data Replication OpenDJ uses advanced data replication with automated conflict resolution to help ensure your directory services remain available in the event a server crashes or a network goes down, and also as you backup or upgrade your directory service. You can configure data replication as part of OpenDJ installation, and in many cases let replication do its work in the background. ## 10.1. Replication Quick Setup You can set up replication during installation by choosing to configure replication through the setup wizard. In the Topology Options screen for the first server you set up, select This server will be part of a replication topology. If you also choose Configure as Secure, then replication traffic is protected by SSL. In the Topology Options screen for subsequent servers, also select There is already a server in the topology, providing the Host Name, Administration Connector Port number, Admin User, and Admin Password for the first replica you set up. You also set up a global administrator account, stored under cn=admin data across replicas, used to manage replication in the topology. You further set up what to replicate. Once replication is set up, it works for all the replicas. You can monitor the replication connection and status through the OpenDJ Control Panel. ## 10.2. About Replication Before you take replication further than setting up replication in the setup wizard, read this section to learn more about how OpenDJ replication works. ### 10.2.1. What Replication Is Replication is the process of copying updates between OpenDJ directory servers such that all servers converge on identical copies of directory data. Replication is designed to let convergence happen over time by default. [14] Letting convergence happen over time means that different replicas can be momentarily out of sync, but it also means that if you lose an individual server or even an entire data center, your directory service can keep on running, and then get back in sync when the servers are restarted or the network is repaired. Replication is specific to the OpenDJ directory service. Replication uses a specific protocol that replays update operations quickly, storing enough historical information about the updates to resolve most conflicts automatically. For example, if two client applications separately update a user entry to change the phone number, replication can work out which was the latest change, and apply that change across servers. The historical information needed to resolve these issues is periodically purged to avoid growing larger and larger forever. As a directory administrator, you must ensure that you do not purge the historical information more often than you backup your directory data. Keep server clocks synchronized for your topology. You can use NTP for example. Keeping server clocks synchronized helps prevent issues with SSL connections and with replication itself. Keeping server clocks synchronized also makes it easier to compare timestamps from multiple servers. ### 10.2.2. Replication Per Suffix The primary unit of replication is the suffix, specified by a base DN such as dc=example,dc=com.[15] Replication also depends on the directory schema, defined on cn=schema, and the cn=admin data suffix with administrative identities and certificates for protecting communications. Thus that content gets replicated as well. The set of OpenDJ servers replicating data for a given suffix is called a replication topology. You can have more than one replication topology. For example, one topology could be devoted to dc=example,dc=com, and another to dc=example,dc=org. OpenDJ servers are capable of serving more than one suffix. They are also capable of participating in more than one replication topology. Within a replication topology, the suffixes being replicated are identified to the replication servers by their DN. As all the replication servers are fully connected in a topology, a consequence is that it is impossible to have multiple "sub-topologies" within the overall set of servers as illustrated in the following diagram. ### 10.2.3. Replication Connection Selection In order to understand what happens when individual servers stop responding due to a network partition or a crash, know that OpenDJ can offer both directory service and also replication service, and the two services are not the same, even if they can run alongside each other in the same OpenDJ server in the same Java Virtual Machine. Replication relies on the replication service provided by OpenDJ replication servers, where OpenDJ directory servers publish changes made to their data, and subscribe to changes published by other OpenDJ directory servers. A replication server manages replication data only, handling replication traffic with directory servers and with other replication servers, receiving, sending, and storing only changes to directory data rather than directory data itself. Once a replication server is connected to a replication topology, it maintains connections to all other replication servers in that topology. A directory server handles directory data. It responds to requests, stores directory data and historical information. For each replicated suffix, such as dc=example,dc=com, cn=schema and cn=admin data, the directory server publishes changes to a replication server, and subscribes to changes from that replication server. (Directory servers do not publish changes to other directory servers.) A directory server also resolves any conflicts that arise when reconciling changes from other directory servers, using the historical information about changes to resolve the conflicts. (Conflict resolution is the responsibility of the directory server rather than the replication server.) Once a directory server is connected to a replication topology for a particular suffix, it connects to one replication server at a time for that suffix. The replication server provides the directory server with a list of all replication servers for that suffix. Given the list of possible replication servers to which it can connect, the directory server can determine which replication server to connect to when starting up, or when the current connection is lost or becomes unresponsive. For each replicated suffix, a directory server prefers to connect to a replication server: 1. In the same group as the directory server 2. Having the same initial data for the suffix as the directory server 3. If initial data were the same, having all the latest changes from the directory server 4. Running in the same Java Virtual Machine as the directory server 5. Having the most available capacity relative to other eligible replication servers Available capacity depends on how many directory servers in the topology are already connected to a replication server, and what proportion of all directory servers in the topology ought to be connected to the replication server. To determine what proportion of the total number of directory servers should be connected to a replication server, OpenDJ uses replication server weight. When configuring a replication server, you can assign it a weight (default: 1). The weight property takes an integer that indicates capacity to provide replication service relative to other servers. For example, a weight of 2 would indicate a replication server that can handle twice as many connected servers as a replication server with weight 1. The proportion of directory servers in a topology that should be connected to a given replication server is equal to (replication server weight)/(sum of replication server weights). In other words, if there are 4 replication servers in a topology each with default weights, the proportion for each replication server is 1/4. Consider a situation where 7 directory servers are connected to replication servers A, B, C, and D for dc=example,dc=com data. Suppose 2 directory servers each are connected to A, B, and C, and 1 directory server is connected to replication server D. Replication server D is therefore the server with the most available capacity relative to other replication servers in the topology. All other criteria being equal, replication server D is the server to connect to when an 8th directory server joins the topology. The directory server regularly updates the list of replication servers in case it must reconnect. As available capacity of replication servers for each replication topology can change dynamically, a directory server can potentially reconnect to another replication server to balance the replication load in the topology. For this reason the server can also end up connected to different replication servers for different suffixes. ## 10.3. Configuring Replication This section shows how to configure replication with command-line tools. ### 10.3.1. Enabling Replication You can start the replication process by using the dsreplication enable command. $ dsreplication
enable
--baseDN dc=example,dc=com
--host1 opendj.example.com
--port1 4444
--bindDN1 "cn=Directory Manager"
--replicationPort1 8989
--host2 opendj2.example.com
--port2 4444
--bindDN2 "cn=Directory Manager"
--replicationPort2 8989
--trustAll
--no-prompt

Establishing connections ..... Done.
Checking registration information ..... Done.
Updating remote references on server opendj.example.com:4444 ..... Done.
Configuring Replication port on server opendj2.example.com:4444 ..... Done.
Updating replication configuration for baseDN dc=example,dc=com on server
opendj.example.com:4444 ..... Done.
Updating replication configuration for baseDN dc=example,dc=com on server
opendj2.example.com:4444 ..... Done.
Updating registration configuration on server
opendj.example.com:4444 ..... Done.
Updating registration configuration on server
opendj2.example.com:4444 ..... Done.
Updating replication configuration for baseDN cn=schema on server
opendj.example.com:4444 ..... Done.
Updating replication configuration for baseDN cn=schema on server
opendj2.example.com:4444 ..... Done.
Initializing registration information on server opendj2.example.com:4444 with
the contents of server opendj.example.com:4444 ..... Done.
Initializing schema on server opendj2.example.com:4444 with the contents of
server opendj.example.com:4444 ..... Done.

Replication has been successfully enabled.  Note that for replication to
work you must initialize the contents of the base DN's that are being
replicated (use dsreplication initialize to do so).

See
/var/.../opends-replication-7958637258600693490.log
for a detailed log of this operation.

To enable secure connections for replication use the --secureReplication1 and --secureReplication2 options, which are equivalent to selecting Configure as Secure in the replication topology options screen of the setup wizard.

As you see in the command output, replication is set up to function once enabled. You must however initialize replication in order to start the process.

### Tip

When scripting the configuration to set up multiple replicas in quick succession, use the same initial replication server each time you run the command. In other words, pass the same --host1, --port1, --bindDN1, --bindPassword1, and --replicationPort1 options for each of the other replicas that you set up in your script.

If you need to add another OpenDJ directory server to participate in replication, use the dsreplication enable with the new server as the second server.

### 10.3.2. Initializing Replicas

You can initialize replication between servers by performing initialization over the network after you have enabled replication, or by importing the same LDIF data on all servers and then enabling replication. You can also add a new server by restoring a backup from an existing replica onto the new server and then enabling replication with an existing replica.

The alternatives are described step-by-step in the following procedures.

Procedure 10.1. To Initialize Replication Over the Network

Initialization over the network while the server is online works well when you have no initial data, or when your network bandwidth is large compared to the initial amount of data to replicate.

1. Enable replication on all servers.

See Section 10.3.1, “Enabling Replication” for instructions.

2. Start replication with the dsreplication initialize-all command.

$dsreplication initialize-all --adminUID admin --adminPassword password --baseDN dc=example,dc=com --hostname opendj.example.com --port 4444 --trustAll --no-prompt Initializing base DN dc=example,dc=com with the contents from opendj.example.com:4444: 160 entries processed (100 % complete). Base DN initialized successfully. See /var/.../opends-replication-5020375834904394170.log for a detailed log of this operation. Procedure 10.2. To Initialize All Servers From the Same LDIF This procedure can be useful when you are starting with a large amount of directory data that is available locally to all directory servers. 1. Import the same LDIF on all servers as described in the procedure, To Import LDIF Data. Do not yet accept updates to the directory data. Section 10.3.7, “Read-Only Replicas” shows how to prevent replicas from accepting updates from clients. 2. Enable replication for all servers. See Section 10.3.1, “Enabling Replication” for instructions. 3. Allow updates to the directory data by setting writability-mode:enabled using a command like the one you found in Section 10.3.7, “Read-Only Replicas”. Procedure 10.3. To Create a New Replica From Existing Backup You can create a new replica from a backup of a server in the existing topology. 1. Install a new server to use as the new replica. 2. Backup the database on an existing server as described in Backing Up Directory Data. At this point, other servers in the topology can continue to process updates. 3. Enable replication on the new replica. $ dsreplication
enable
--baseDN dc=example,dc=com
--host1 opendj.example.com
--port1 4444
--bindDN1 "cn=Directory Manager"
--replicationPort1 8989
--host2 opendj3.example.com
--port2 4444
--bindDN2 "cn=Directory Manager"
--replicationPort2 8989
--trustAll
--no-prompt

Establishing connections ..... Done.
Checking registration information ..... Done.
Updating remote references on server opendj.example.com:4444 ..... Done.
Configuring Replication port on server opendj3.example.com:4444 ..... Done.
Updating replication configuration for baseDN dc=example,dc=com on server
opendj.example.com:4444 ..... Done.
Updating replication configuration for baseDN dc=example,dc=com on server
opendj3.example.com:4444 ..... Done.
Updating replication configuration for baseDN dc=example,dc=com on server
opendj2.example.com:4444 ..... Done.
Updating remote references on server opendj2.example.com:4444 ..... Done.
Updating registration configuration on server
opendj.example.com:4444 ..... Done.
Updating registration configuration on server
opendj3.example.com:4444 ..... Done.
Updating registration configuration on server
opendj2.example.com:4444 ..... Done.
Updating replication configuration for baseDN cn=schema on server
opendj.example.com:4444 ..... Done.
Updating replication configuration for baseDN cn=schema on server
opendj3.example.com:4444 ..... Done.
Updating replication configuration for baseDN cn=schema on server
opendj2.example.com:4444 ..... Done.
Initializing registration information on server opendj3.example.com:4444 with
the contents of server opendj.example.com:4444 ..... Done.

Replication has been successfully enabled.  Note that for replication to
work you must initialize the contents of the base DN's that are being
replicated (use dsreplication initialize to do so).

See
/var/.../opends-replication-1672058070147419978.log
for a detailed log of this operation.

Contrary to the message from the command, you do not need to use the dsreplication initialize command at this point.

4. On the new server, restore the database from the backup archive as described in the procedure, To Restore a Replica.

As long as you restore the database on the new replica before the replication purge delay runs out, updates processed by other servers after you created the backup are replicated to the new server after you restore the data.

### 10.3.3. Stopping Replication

How you stop replication depends on whether the change is meant to be temporary or permanent.

Procedure 10.4. To Stop Replication Temporarily For a Replica

If you need to stop a server from replicating temporarily, you can do so using dsconfig command.

### Warning

Do not allow modifications on the replica for which replication is disabled, as no record of such changes is kept, and the changes cause replication to diverge.

1. Disable the multimaster synchronization provider.

$dsconfig set-synchronization-provider-prop --port 4444 --hostname opendj2.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --provider-name "Multimaster Synchronization" --set enabled:false --trustAll --no-prompt 2. When you are ready to resume replication, enable the multimaster synchronization provider. $ dsconfig
set-synchronization-provider-prop
--port 4444
--hostname opendj2.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--provider-name "Multimaster Synchronization"
--set enabled:true
--trustAll
--no-prompt
Procedure 10.5. To Stop Replication Permanently For a Replica

If you need to stop a server from replicating permanently, for example in preparation to remove a server, you can do so with the dsreplication disable command.

1. Stop replication using the dsreplication disable command.

$dsreplication disable --disableAll --port 4444 --hostname opendj2.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --adminPassword password --trustAll --no-prompt Establishing connections ..... Done. Disabling replication on base DN cn=admin data of server opendj2.example.com:4444 ..... Done. Disabling replication on base DN dc=example,dc=com of server opendj2.example.com:4444 ..... Done. Disabling replication on base DN cn=schema of server opendj2.example.com:4444 ..... Done. Disabling replication port 8989 of server opendj2.example.com:4444 ..... Done. Removing registration information ..... Done. Removing truststore information ..... Done. See /var/.../opends-replication-125248191132797765.log for a detailed log of this operation. The dsreplication disable as shown completely removes the replication configuration information from the server. 2. If you want to restart replication for the server, you need to run the dsreplication enable and dsreplication initialize commands again. ### 10.3.4. Stand-alone Replication Servers Replication in OpenDJ is designed to be both easy to implement in environments with a few servers, and also scalable in environments with many servers. You can enable the replication service on each OpenDJ directory server in your deployment, for example, to limit the number of servers you deploy. Yet in a large deployment, you can use stand-alone replication servers — OpenDJ servers that do nothing but relay replication messages — to configure (and troubleshoot) the replication service separately from the directory service. You only need a few stand-alone replication servers publishing changes to serve many directory servers subscribed to the changes. Furthermore, replication is designed such that you need only connect a directory server to the nearest replication server for the directory server to replicate with all others in your topology. Yet only the stand-alone replication servers participate in fully-meshed replication. All replication servers in a topology are connected to all other replication servers. Directory servers are connected only to one replication server at a time, and their connections should be to replication servers on the same LAN. Therefore the total number of replication connections, Totalconn is expressed as follows. Equation 10.1. Totalconn = (NRS * NRS-1)/2 + NDS Here, NRS is the number of replication servers, and NDS is the number of stand-alone directory servers. In other words, if you have only 3 servers, then Totalconn is 3 with no stand-alone servers. However, if you have two data centers, and need 12 directory servers, then with no stand-alone directory servers Totalconn is (12 * 11)/2 or 66. Yet, with 4 stand-alone replication servers, and 12 stand-alone directory servers, Totalconn is (4 * 3)/2 + 12, or 18, with only four of those connections needing to go over the WAN. (By running four directory servers that also run replication servers and eight stand-alone directory servers, you reduce the number of replication connections to 14 for 12 replicas.) ### Tip If you set up OpenDJ directory server to replicate by using the Quick Setup wizard, then the wizard activated the replication service for that server. You can turn off the replication service on OpenDJ directory server, and then configure the server to work with a separate, stand-alone replication server instead. Start by using the dsreplication disable --disableReplicationServer command to turn off the replication service on the server. Procedure 10.6. To Set Up a Stand-alone Replication Server This example sets up a stand-alone replication server to handle the replication traffic between two directory servers that do not handle replication themselves. Here the replication server is rs.example.com. The directory servers are opendj.example.com and opendj2.example.com. In a real deployment, you would have more replication servers to avoid a single point of failure. 1. Setup the replication server as a directory server that has no database. 2. Setup the directory servers as stand-alone directory servers. 3. Enable replication with the appropriate --noReplicationServer and --onlyReplicationServer options. $ dsreplication
enable
--baseDN dc=example,dc=com
--host1 opendj.example.com
--port1 4444
--bindDN1 "cn=Directory Manager"
--noReplicationServer1
--host2 rs.example.com
--port2 4444
--bindDN2 "cn=Directory Manager"
--replicationPort2 8989
--onlyReplicationServer2
--trustAll
--no-prompt
Establishing connections ..... Done.
Only one replication server will be defined for the following base DN's:
dc=example,dc=com
It is recommended to have at least two replication servers (two changelogs) to
avoid a single point of failure in the replication topology.

Checking registration information ..... Done.
Configuring Replication port on server rs.example.com:4444 ..... Done.
Updating replication configuration for baseDN dc=example,dc=com on server
opendj.example.com:4444 ..... Done.
Updating registration configuration on server
opendj.example.com:4444 ..... Done.
Updating registration configuration on server
rs.example.com:4444 ..... Done.
Updating replication configuration for baseDN cn=schema on server
opendj.example.com:4444 ..... Done.
Initializing registration information on server rs.example.com:4444 with
the contents of server opendj.example.com:4444 ..... Done.

Replication has been successfully enabled.  Note that for replication to work
you must initialize the contents of the base DN's that are being
replicated (use dsreplication initialize to do so).

See
/var/.../opends-replication-1720959352638609971.log
for a detailed log of this operation.

$dsreplication enable --adminUID admin --adminPassword password --baseDN dc=example,dc=com --host1 opendj2.example.com --port1 4444 --bindDN1 "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword1 password --noReplicationServer1 --host2 rs.example.com --port2 4444 --bindDN2 "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword2 password --replicationPort2 8989 --onlyReplicationServer2 --trustAll --no-prompt Establishing connections ..... Done. Only one replication server will be defined for the following base DN's: dc=example,dc=com It is recommended to have at least two replication servers (two changelogs) to avoid a single point of failure in the replication topology. Checking registration information ..... Done. Updating remote references on server rs.example.com:4444 ..... Done. Updating replication configuration for baseDN dc=example,dc=com on server opendj2.example.com:4444 ..... Done. Updating replication configuration for baseDN dc=example,dc=com on server opendj.example.com:4444 ..... Done. Updating registration configuration on server opendj2.example.com:4444 ..... Done. Updating registration configuration on server rs.example.com:4444 ..... Done. Updating registration configuration on server opendj.example.com:4444 ..... Done. Updating replication configuration for baseDN cn=schema on server opendj2.example.com:4444 ..... Done. Updating replication configuration for baseDN cn=schema on server opendj.example.com:4444 ..... Done. Initializing registration information on server opendj2.example.com:4444 with the contents of server rs.example.com:4444 ..... Done. Replication has been successfully enabled. Note that for replication to work you must initialize the contents of the base DN's that are being replicated (use dsreplication initialize to do so). See /var/folders/.../opends-replication-5893037538856033562.log for a detailed log of this operation. 4. Initialize replication from one of the directory servers. $ dsreplication
initialize-all
--baseDN dc=example,dc=com
--hostname opendj.example.com
--port 4444
--trustAll
--no-prompt

Initializing base DN dc=example,dc=com with the contents from
opendj.example.com:4444: 160 entries processed (100 % complete).
Base DN initialized successfully.

See
/var/.../opends-replication-7677303986403997574.log
for a detailed log of this operation.

### 10.3.5. Stand-alone Directory Server Replicas

When you configure replication for an OpenDJ directory server, you can give the directory server the capability to handle replication traffic as well. As described in Section 10.3.4, “Stand-alone Replication Servers”, OpenDJ servers can also be configured to handle only replication traffic.

Alternatively you can configure an OpenDJ directory server to connect to a remote replication server of either variety, but to remain only a directory server itself. This sort of stand-alone directory server replica is shown in Figure 10.1, “Deployment For Multiple Data Centers”.

Furthermore, you can make this stand-alone directory server replica read-only for client applications, accepting only replication updates.

Procedure 10.7. To Set Up a Stand-alone Directory Server Replica

The following steps show how to configure the server as a stand-alone, directory server only replica of an existing replicated directory server.

1. Set up replication between other servers.

2. Install the directory server without configuring replication, but creating at least the base entry to be replicated.

3. Enable replication with the appropriate --noReplicationServer option.

$dsreplication enable --adminUID admin --adminPassword password --baseDN dc=example,dc=com --host1 master.example.com --port1 4444 --bindDN1 "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword1 password --host2 ds-only.example.com --port2 4444 --bindDN2 "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword2 password --noReplicationServer2 --trustAll --no-prompt Establishing connections ..... Done. Checking registration information ..... Done. Updating remote references on server master.example.com:4444 ..... Done. Updating replication configuration for baseDN dc=example,dc=com on server master.example.com:4444 ..... Done. Updating replication configuration for baseDN dc=example,dc=com on server ds-only.example.com:4444 ..... Done. Updating replication configuration for baseDN dc=example,dc=com on server master2.example.com:4444 ..... Done. Updating remote references on server master2.example.com:4444 ..... Done. Updating registration configuration on server master.example.com:4444 ..... Done. Updating registration configuration on server ds-only.example.com:4444 ..... Done. Updating registration configuration on server master2.example.com:4444 ..... Done. Updating replication configuration for baseDN cn=schema on server master.example.com:4444 ..... Done. Updating replication configuration for baseDN cn=schema on server ds-only.example.com:4444 ..... Done. Updating replication configuration for baseDN cn=schema on server master2.example.com:4444 ..... Done. Initializing registration information on server ds-only.example.com:4444 with the contents of server master.example.com:4444 ..... Done. Initializing schema on server ds-only.example.com:4444 with the contents of server master.example.com:4444 ..... Done. Replication has been successfully enabled. Note that for replication to work you must initialize the contents of the base DNs that are being replicated (use dsreplication initialize to do so). See /var/.../opendj-replication-859181866587327450.log for a detailed log of this operation. Here the existing server is both directory server and replication server. If the existing server is a stand-alone replication server, then also use the appropriate --onlyReplicationServer option. 4. Initialize data on the new directory server replica. $ dsreplication
initialize
--baseDN dc=example,dc=com
--hostSource master.example.com
--portSource 4444
--hostDestination ds-only.example.com
--portDestination 4444
--trustAll
--no-prompt

Initializing base DN dc=example,dc=com with the contents
from master.example.com:4444:
0 entries processed (0 % complete).
176 entries processed (100 % complete).
Base DN initialized successfully.

See
/var/.../opendj-replication-4326340645155418876.log
for a detailed log of this operation.
5. If you want to make the directory server replica read-only for client application traffic, see Section 10.3.7, “Read-Only Replicas”.

### 10.3.6. Replication Groups

Replication lets you define groups so that replicas communicate first with replication servers in the group before going to replication servers outside the group. Groups are identified with unique numeric group IDs.

Replication groups are designed for deployments across multiple data centers, where you aim to focus replication traffic on the LAN rather than the WAN. In multi-data center deployments, group nearby servers together.

Procedure 10.8. To Set Up Replication Groups

For each group, set the appropriate group ID for the topology on both the replication servers and the directory servers.

The example commands in this procedure set up two replication groups, each with a replication server and a directory server. The directory servers are opendj.example.com and opendj2.example.com. The replication servers are rs.example.com and rs2.example.com. In a full-scale deployment, you would have multiple servers of each type in each group, such as all the replicas and replication servers in each data center being in the same group.

1. Pick a group ID for each group.

The default group ID is 1.

2. Set the group ID for each group by replication domain on the directory servers.

$dsconfig set-replication-domain-prop --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --provider-name "Multimaster Synchronization" --domain-name "dc=example,dc=com" --set group-id:1 --trustAll --no-prompt$ dsconfig
set-replication-domain-prop
--port 4444
--hostname opendj2.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--provider-name "Multimaster Synchronization"
--domain-name "dc=example,dc=com"
--set group-id:2
--trustAll
--no-prompt
3. Set the group ID for each group on the replication servers.

$dsconfig set-replication-server-prop --port 4444 --hostname rs.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --provider-name "Multimaster Synchronization" --set group-id:1 --trustAll --no-prompt$ dsconfig
set-replication-server-prop
--port 4444
--hostname rs2.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--provider-name "Multimaster Synchronization"
--set group-id:2
--trustAll
--no-prompt

By default all directory servers in a replication topology are read-write. You can however choose to make replicas take updates only from the replication protocol, and refuse updates from client applications.

$dsconfig set-global-configuration-prop --port 4444 --hostname opendj2.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --set writability-mode:internal-only --trustAll --no-prompt ### 10.3.8. Assured Replication In standard replication, when a client requests an update operation the directory server performs the update and, if the update is successful, sends information about the update to the replication service, and sends a result code to the client application right away. As a result, the client application can conclude that the update was successful, but only on the replica that handled the update. Assured replication lets you force the replica performing the initial update to wait for confirmation that the update has been received elsewhere in the topology before sending a result code to the client application. You can configure assured replication either to wait for one or more replication servers to acknowledge having received the update, or to wait for all directory servers to have replayed the update. As you might imagine, assured replication is theoretically safer than standard replication, yet it is also slower, potentially waiting for a timeout before failing when the network or other servers are down. Procedure 10.9. To Ensure Updates Reach Replication Servers Safe data mode requires the update be sent to assured-sd-level replication servers before acknowledgement is returned to the client application. • For each directory server, set safe data mode for the replication domain, and also set the safe data level. $ dsconfig
set-replication-domain-prop
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--provider-name "Multimaster Synchronization"
--domain-name "dc=example,dc=com"
--set assured-type:safe-data
--set assured-sd-level:1
--trustAll
--no-prompt

$dsconfig set-replication-domain-prop --port 4444 --hostname opendj2.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --provider-name "Multimaster Synchronization" --domain-name "dc=example,dc=com" --set assured-type:safe-data --set assured-sd-level:1 --trustAll --no-prompt Procedure 10.10. To Ensure Updates Are Replayed Everywhere Safe read mode requires the update be replayed on all directory servers before acknowledgement is returned to the client application. • For each directory server, set safe read mode for the replication domain. $ dsconfig
set-replication-domain-prop
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--provider-name "Multimaster Synchronization"
--domain-name "dc=example,dc=com"
--trustAll
--no-prompt

$dsconfig set-replication-domain-prop --port 4444 --hostname opendj2.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --provider-name "Multimaster Synchronization" --domain-name "dc=example,dc=com" --set assured-type:safe-read --trustAll --no-prompt When working with assured replication, the replication server property degraded-status-threshold (default: 5000), sets the number of operations allowed to build up in the replication queue before the server is assigned degraded status. When a replication server has degraded status, assured replication ceases to have an effect. ### 10.3.9. Subtree Replication OpenDJ can perform subtree replication, for example replicating ou=People,dc=example,dc=com, but not the rest of dc=example,dc=com, by putting the subtree in a separate backend from the rest of the suffix. For example, in this case you might have a userRoot backend containing everything in dc=example,dc=com except ou=People,dc=example,dc=com, and a separate peopleRoot backend for ou=People,dc=example,dc=com. Then you replicate ou=People,dc=example,dc=com in its own topology. ### 10.3.10. Fractional Replication OpenDJ can perform fractional replication, whereby you specify the attributes to include in or to exclude from the replication process. You set fractional replication configuration as fractional-include or fractional-exclude properties for a replication domain. When you include attributes, the attributes that are required on the relevant object classes are also included, whether you specify them or not. When you exclude attributes, the excluded attributes must be optional attributes for the relevant object classes. Fractional replicas still respect schema definitions. Fractional replication works by filtering objects at the replication server. Initialize replication as you would normally. Of course you cannot create a full replica from a replica with only a subset of the data. If you must prevent data from being replicated across a national boundary, split the replication server handling the updates from the directory servers receiving the updates as described in Procedure 10.6, “To Set Up a Stand-alone Replication Server”. For example, you might configure an externally facing fractional replica to include only some inetOrgPerson attributes. $ dsconfig
set-replication-domain-prop
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--provider-name "Multimaster Synchronization"
--domain-name "dc=example,dc=com"
--trustAll
--no-prompt
--set
fractional-include:inetorgperson:cn,givenname,mail,mobile,sn,telephonenumber

As another example, you might exclude a custom attribute called sessionToken from being replicated.

$dsconfig set-replication-domain-prop --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --provider-name "Multimaster Synchronization" --domain-name "dc=example,dc=com" --set fractional-exclude:*:sessionToken --trustAll --no-prompt This last example only works if you first define a sessionToken attribute in the directory server schema. ## 10.4. Change Notification For Your Applications Some applications require notification when directory data updates occur. For example, an application might need to sync directory data with another database, or the application might need to kick off other processing when certain updates occur. In addition to supporting persistent search operations, OpenDJ provides an external change log mechanism to allow applications to be notified of changes to directory data. Procedure 10.11. To Enable the External Change Log OpenDJ directory servers without replication cannot expose an external change log. The OpenDJ server that exposes the change log must function both as a directory server, and also as a replication server for the suffix whose changes you want logged. • Enable replication without using the --noReplicationServer or --onlyReplicationServer options. With replication enabled, the changelog data can be accessed under cn=changelog. For example, the following search shows the publicly visible data available before any changes have been made. $ ldapsearch --baseDN cn=changelog --port 1389 "(objectclass=*)" \* +
dn: cn=changelog
cn: changelog
objectClass: top
objectClass: container
subschemaSubentry: cn=schema
hasSubordinates: false
entryDN: cn=changelog

Procedure 10.12. To Use the External Change Log

You read the external change log over LDAP. In addition, when you poll the change log periodically, you can get the list of updates that happened since your last request.

The external change log mechanism uses an LDAP control with OID 1.3.6.1.4.1.26027.1.5.4 to allow the exchange of cookies for the client application to bookmark the last changes seen, and then start reading the next set of changes from where it left off on the previous request.

This procedure shows the client reading the change log as cn=Directory Manager. Make sure your client application reads the changes with sufficient access to view all the changes it needs to see.

1. Send an initial search request using the LDAP control with no cookie value.

Notice the value of the changeLogCookie attribute for the last of the two changes.

$ldapsearch --baseDN cn=changelog --port 1389 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --control "1.3.6.1.4.1.26027.1.5.4:false" "(objectclass=*)" \* + dn: cn=changelog cn: changelog objectClass: top objectClass: container subschemaSubentry: cn=schema hasSubordinates: true entryDN: cn=changelog # Public changelog exchange control(1.3.6.1.4.1.26027.1.5.4): dc=example,dc=com:0000013087cbc28212d100000001; dn: replicationCSN=0000013087cbc28212d100000001,dc=example,dc=com,cn=changelog targetDN: cn=arsene lupin,ou=special users,dc=example,dc=com changeNumber: 0 changes:: b2JqZWN0Q2xhc3M6IHBlcnNvbgpvYmplY3RDbGFzczogdG9wCmNuOiBBcnNlbmUgTHVwaW 4KdGVsZXBob25lTnVtYmVyOiArMzMgMSAyMyA0NSA2NyA4OQpzbjogTHVwaW4KZW50cnlVVUlEOiA5M GM3MTRmNy00ODZiLTRkNDctOTQwOS1iNDRkMTlkZWEzMWUKY3JlYXRlVGltZXN0YW1wOiAyMDExMDYx MzA2NTg1NVoKY3JlYXRvcnNOYW1lOiBjbj1EaXJlY3RvcnkgTWFuYWdlcixjbj1Sb290IEROcyxjbj1 jb25maWcK changeType: add changeTime: 20110613065855Z objectClass: top objectClass: changeLogEntry targetEntryUUID: 90c714f7-486b-4d47-9409-b44d19dea31e replicationCSN: 0000013087cbc28212d100000001 numSubordinates: 0 replicaIdentifier: 4817 changeLogCookie: dc=example,dc=com:0000013087cbc28212d100000001; changeInitiatorsName: cn=Directory Manager,cn=Root DNs,cn=config subschemaSubentry: cn=schema hasSubordinates: false entryDN: replicationCSN=0000013087cbc28212d100000001,dc=example,dc=com,cn=change log # Public changelog exchange control(1.3.6.1.4.1.26027.1.5.4): dc=example,dc=com:0000013087cbc34a12d100000002; dn: replicationCSN=0000013087cbc34a12d100000002,dc=example,dc=com,cn=changelog targetDN: cn=horace velmont,ou=special users,dc=example,dc=com changeNumber: 0 changes:: b2JqZWN0Q2xhc3M6IHBlcnNvbgpvYmplY3RDbGFzczogdG9wCmNuOiBIb3JhY2UgVmVsbW 9udAp0ZWxlcGhvbmVOdW1iZXI6ICszMyAxIDEyIDIzIDM0IDQ1CnNuOiBWZWxtb250CmVudHJ5VVVJR DogNmIyMjQ0MGEtNzZkMC00MDMxLTk0YjctMzViMWQ4NmYwNjdlCmNyZWF0ZVRpbWVzdGFtcDogMjAx MTA2MTMwNjU4NTVaCmNyZWF0b3JzTmFtZTogY249RGlyZWN0b3J5IE1hbmFnZXIsY249Um9vdCBETnM sY249Y29uZmlnCg== changeType: add changeTime: 20110613065855Z objectClass: top objectClass: changeLogEntry targetEntryUUID: 6b22440a-76d0-4031-94b7-35b1d86f067e replicationCSN: 0000013087cbc34a12d100000002 numSubordinates: 0 replicaIdentifier: 4817 changeLogCookie: dc=example,dc=com:0000013087cbc34a12d100000002; changeInitiatorsName: cn=Directory Manager,cn=Root DNs,cn=config subschemaSubentry: cn=schema hasSubordinates: false entryDN: replicationCSN=0000013087cbc34a12d100000002,dc=example,dc=com,cn=change log  In this example, two new users were added to another replica before the change log request was made. Here the changes are base64 encoded, so you can decode them using the base64 command. $ base64 decode --encodedData b2JqZW...ZmlnCg==
objectClass: person
objectClass: top
cn: Horace Velmont
telephoneNumber: +33 1 12 23 34 45
sn: Velmont
entryUUID: 6b22440a-76d0-4031-94b7-35b1d86f067e
createTimestamp: 20110613065855Z
creatorsName: cn=Directory Manager,cn=Root DNs,cn=config

2. For the next search, provide the cookie to start reading where you left off last time.

In this example, a description was added to Babs Jensen's entry.

$ldapsearch --baseDN cn=changelog --port 1389 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --control "1.3.6.1.4.1.26027.1.5.4:false: dc=example,dc=com:0000013087cbc34a12d100000002;" "(objectclass=*)" \* + dn: cn=changelog cn: changelog objectClass: top objectClass: container subschemaSubentry: cn=schema hasSubordinates: true entryDN: cn=changelog # Public changelog exchange control(1.3.6.1.4.1.26027.1.5.4): dc=example,dc=com:0000013087d7e27f12d100000003; dn: replicationCSN=0000013087d7e27f12d100000003,dc=example,dc=com,cn=changelog targetDN: uid=bjensen,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com changeNumber: 0 changes:: YWRkOiBkZXNjcmlwdGlvbgpkZXNjcmlwdGlvbjogQSB0aGlyZCBjaGFuZ2UKLQpyZXBsYW NlOiBtb2RpZmllcnNOYW1lCm1vZGlmaWVyc05hbWU6IGNuPURpcmVjdG9yeSBNYW5hZ2VyLGNuPVJvb 3QgRE5zLGNuPWNvbmZpZwotCnJlcGxhY2U6IG1vZGlmeVRpbWVzdGFtcAptb2RpZnlUaW1lc3RhbXA6 IDIwMTEwNjEzMDcxMjEwWgotCg== changeType: modify changeTime: 20110613071210Z objectClass: top objectClass: changeLogEntry targetEntryUUID: fc252fd9-b982-3ed6-b42a-c76d2546312c replicationCSN: 0000013087d7e27f12d100000003 numSubordinates: 0 replicaIdentifier: 4817 changeLogCookie: dc=example,dc=com:0000013087d7e27f12d100000003; changeInitiatorsName: cn=Directory Manager,cn=Root DNs,cn=config subschemaSubentry: cn=schema hasSubordinates: false entryDN: replicationCSN=0000013087d7e27f12d100000003,dc=example,dc=com,cn=change log  If we base64-decode the changes, we see the following. $ base64 decode --encodedData YWRkO...gotCg==
description: A third change
-
replace: modifiersName
modifiersName: cn=Directory Manager,cn=Root DNs,cn=config
-
replace: modifyTimestamp
modifyTimestamp: 20110613071210Z
-

3. If for some reason you lose the cookie, you can start over from the earliest available change by sending a search request with no value for the cookie.

Procedure 10.13. To Include Unchanged Attributes in the External Change Log

As shown above, the changes returned from a search on the external change log include only what was actually changed. If you have applications that need additional attributes published with every change log entry, regardless of whether or not the attribute itself has changed, then specify those using ecl-include and ecl-include-for-deletes.

1. Set the attributes to include for all update operations with ecl-include.

$dsconfig set-external-changelog-domain-prop --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --provider-name "Multimaster Synchronization" --domain-name dc=example,dc=com --set ecl-include:"@person" --trustAll --no-prompt 2. Set the attributes to include for deletes with ecl-include-for-deletes. $ dsconfig
set-external-changelog-domain-prop
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--provider-name "Multimaster Synchronization"
--domain-name dc=example,dc=com
--trustAll
--no-prompt
Procedure 10.14. To Limit External Change Log Content

You can limit external change log content by disabling the domain for a base DN. By default, cn=schema and cn=admin data are not enabled.

• Prevent OpenDJ from logging changes by disabling the domain.

$dsconfig set-external-changelog-domain-prop --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --provider-name "Multimaster Synchronization" --domain-name dc=example,dc=com --set enabled:false --trustAll --no-prompt The external change log can also work for applications that follow the Internet-Draft: Definition of an Object Class to Hold LDAP Change Records. Nothing special is required to get the objects specified for this legacy format. Such applications cannot however use the change log cookies that are shared across the replication topology, and therefore can continue to be used after failover to another replica in a multi-master replication environment. [14] Assured replication can require, however, that the convergence happen before the client application is notified that the operation was successful. [15] When you configure partial and fractional replication, however, you can replicate only part of a suffix, or only certain attributes on entries. Also, if you split your suffix across multiple backends, then you need to set up replication separately for each part of suffix in a different backend. ## Chapter 11. Backing Up & Restoring Data OpenDJ lets you backup and restore your data either in compressed, binary format, or in LDAP Data Interchange Format. This chapter shows you how to backup and to restore OpenDJ data from archives, and explains portability of backup archives, as well as backing up server configuration information. ## 11.1. Backing Up Directory Data A bak/ directory is provided when you install OpenDJ, as a location to save binary backups. When you create a backup, the bak/backup.info contains information about the archive. Archives produced by the backup command contain backups only of the directory data. Backups of server configuration are found in config/archived-configs/. Procedure 11.1. To Back Up Data Immediately To perform online backup, you start backup as a task by connecting to the administrative port and authenticating as a user with the backend-backup privilege, and also setting a start time for the task by using the --start option. To perform offline backup when OpenDJ is stopped, you run the backup command without connecting to the server, authenticating, or requesting a backup task. • Use one of the following alternatives. • Back up only the database for Example.com, where the data is stored in the backend named userRoot. The following example requests an online backup task that starts immediately, backing up only the userRoot backend. $ backup
--port 4444
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--backendID userRoot
--backupDirectory /path/to/opendj/bak
--start 0
Backup task 20110613143715983 scheduled to start Jun 13, 2011 2:37:15 PM CEST
• Stop the server to back up Example.com data offline.

The following example stops OpenDJ, runs offline backup, and starts the server after backup has completed.

$stop-ds Stopping Server... [13/Jun/2011:14:31:00 +0200] category=BACKEND severity=NOTICE msgID=9896306 msg=The backend userRoot is now taken offline [13/Jun/2011:14:31:00 +0200] category=CORE severity=NOTICE msgID=458955 msg=The Directory Server is now stopped$ backup --backendID userRoot -d /path/to/opendj/bak
[13/Jun/2011:14:33:48 +0200] category=TOOLS severity=NOTICE msgID=10944792
msg=Starting backup for backend userRoot
[13/Jun/2011:14:33:48 +0200] category=JEB severity=NOTICE msgID=8847446
msg=Archived: 00000000.jdb
[13/Jun/2011:14:33:48 +0200] category=TOOLS severity=NOTICE msgID=10944795
msg=The backup process completed successfully
$start-ds ... The Directory Server has started successfully • Back up all user data on the server. The following example requests an online backup task that starts immediately, backing up all backends. $ backup
--port 4444
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--backUpAll
--backupDirectory /path/to/opendj/bak
--start 0
Backup task 20110613143801866 scheduled to start Jun 13, 2011 2:38:01 PM CEST
Procedure 11.2. To Schedule Data Backup

You can schedule online data backup using crontab format.

• Back up all user data every night at 2 AM, and notify diradmin@example.com when finished, or on error.

$backup --port 4444 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --backUpAll --backupDirectory /path/to/opendj/bak --recurringTask "00 02 * * *" --completionNotify diradmin@example.com --errorNotify diradmin@example.com Recurring Backup task BackupTask-988d6adf-4d65-44bf-8546-6ea74a2480b0 scheduled successfully ## 11.2. Restoring Directory Data From Backup When you restore data, the procedure to follow depends on whether the OpenDJ directory server is replicated. Procedure 11.3. To Restore a Stand-alone Server To restore OpenDJ when the server is online, you start a restore task by connecting to the administrative port and authenticating as a user with the backend-restore privilege, and also setting a start time for the task by using the --start option. To restore data when OpenDJ is stopped, you run the restore command without connecting to the server, authenticating, or requesting a restore task. • Use one of the following alternatives. • Stop the server to restore data for Example.com. The following example stops OpenDJ, restores data offline from one of the available backups, and then starts the server after the restore is complete. $ stop-ds
Stopping Server...

[13/Jun/2011:15:44:06 +0200] category=BACKEND severity=NOTICE msgID=9896306
msg=The backend userRoot is now taken offline
[13/Jun/2011:15:44:06 +0200] category=CORE severity=NOTICE msgID=458955
msg=The Directory Server is now stopped
$restore --backupDirectory /path/to/opendj/bak --listBackups Backup ID: 20110613080032 Backup Date: 13/Jun/2011:08:00:45 +0200 Is Incremental: false Is Compressed: false Is Encrypted: false Has Unsigned Hash: false Has Signed Hash: false Dependent Upon: none$ restore --backupDirectory /path/to/opendj/bak --backupID 20110613080032
[13/Jun/2011:15:47:41 +0200] category=JEB severity=NOTICE msgID=8847445
msg=Restored: 00000000.jdb (size 341835)
$start-ds ... The Directory Server has started successfully • Schedule the restore as a task to begin immediately. The following example requests an online restore task, scheduled to start immediately. $ restore
--port 4444
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--backupDirectory /path/to/opendj/bak
--backupID 20110613080032
--start 0
Restore task 20110613155052932 scheduled to start Jun 13, 2011 3:50:52 PM CEST
Procedure 11.4. To Restore a Replica

After you restore a replica from backup, replication brings the replica up to date with changes that happened after you created the backup. In order to bring the replica up to date, replication must apply changes that happened after the backup was made. Replication uses internal change log records to determine what changes to apply.

Internal change log records are not kept forever, though. Replication is configured to purge the change log of old changes, preventing the log from growing indefinitely. Yet, for replication to determine what changes to apply to a restored replica, it must find change log records dating back at least to the last change in the backup. In other words, replication can bring the restored replica up to date as long as the change log records used to determine which changes to apply have not been purged.

Therefore, when you restore a replicated server from backup, make sure the backup you use is newer than the last purge of the replication change log (default: 3 days). If all your backups are older than the replication purge delay, do not restore from a backup, but instead initialize a new replica as described in Initializing Replicas.

• Restore the server database from the backup archive that you are sure is newer than the last purge of the replication change log.

$stop-ds Stopping Server... [13/Jun/2011:15:44:06 +0200] category=BACKEND severity=NOTICE msgID=9896306 msg=The backend userRoot is now taken offline [13/Jun/2011:15:44:06 +0200] category=CORE severity=NOTICE msgID=458955 msg=The Directory Server is now stopped$ restore --backupDirectory /path/to/opendj/bak --listBackups
Backup ID:          20110613080032
Backup Date:        13/Jun/2011:08:00:45 +0200
Is Incremental:     false
Is Compressed:      false
Is Encrypted:       false
Has Unsigned Hash:  false
Has Signed Hash:    false
Dependent Upon:     none
$restore --backupDirectory /path/to/opendj/bak --backupID 20110613080032 [13/Jun/2011:15:47:41 +0200] category=JEB severity=NOTICE msgID=8847445 msg=Restored: 00000000.jdb (size 341835)$ start-ds
... The Directory Server has started successfully

## Chapter 12. Configuring Password Policy

If you want to synchronize password policy across your organization and your applications go to the directory for authentication, then the directory can be a good place to enforce your password policy uniformly. Even if you do not depend on the directory for all your password policy, you no doubt still want to consider directory password policy if only to choose the appropriate password storage scheme.

This chapter covers password policy, including examples of how to configure password policies for common use cases.

OpenDJ supports password policies as part of the server configuration, and also subentry password policies as part of the (replicated) user data.

### 12.1.1. Server Based Password Policies

You manage server based password policies in the OpenDJ configuration by using the dsconfig command. As they are part of the server configuration, such password policies are not replicated. You must instead apply password policy configuration updates to each replica in your deployment.

By default, OpenDJ includes two password policy configurations, one default for all users, and another for directory root DN users, such as cn=Directory Manager. You can see all the default password policy settings using the dsconfig command as follows.

$dsconfig get-password-policy-prop --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --policy-name "Default Password Policy" --advanced Property : Value(s) ------------------------------------------:-------------------------- account-status-notification-handler : - allow-expired-password-changes : false allow-multiple-password-values : false allow-pre-encoded-passwords : false allow-user-password-changes : true default-password-storage-scheme : Salted SHA-1 deprecated-password-storage-scheme : - expire-passwords-without-warning : false force-change-on-add : false force-change-on-reset : false grace-login-count : 0 idle-lockout-interval : 0 s last-login-time-attribute : - last-login-time-format : - lockout-duration : 0 s lockout-failure-count : 0 lockout-failure-expiration-interval : 0 s max-password-age : 0 s max-password-reset-age : 0 s min-password-age : 0 s password-attribute : userpassword password-change-requires-current-password : false password-expiration-warning-interval : 5 d password-generator : Random Password Generator password-history-count : 0 password-history-duration : 0 s password-validator : - previous-last-login-time-format : - require-change-by-time : - require-secure-authentication : false require-secure-password-changes : false skip-validation-for-administrators : false state-update-failure-policy : reactive See the OpenDJ Configuration Reference page on Password Policy for detailed descriptions of each property. Here you notice that many capabilities are not set by default: no lockout, no password expiration, no multiple passwords, no password validator to check that passwords contain the appropriate mix of characters. This means that if you decide to use the directory to enforce password policy, you must configure at least the default password policy to meet your needs. Yet a few basic protections are configured by default. When you import LDIF with userPassword values, OpenDJ hashes the values before storing them. When a user provides a password value during a bind for example, the server hashes the value provided to compared it with the stored value. Even the directory manager cannot see the plain text value of a user's password. $ ldapsearch
--port 1389
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--baseDN dc=example,dc=com
uid=bjensen
dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
userpassword: {SSHA}QWAtw8ch/9850HNFRRqLNMIQc1YhxCnOoGmk1g==

In addition, users can change their passwords provided you have granted them access to do so. OpenDJ uses the userPassword attribute to store passwords by default, rather than the authPassword attribute, which is designed to store passwords hashed by the client application.

### 12.1.2. Subentry Based Password Policies

You manage subentry password policies by adding the subentries alongside the user data. Thus OpenDJ can replicate subentry password policies across servers.

Subentry password policies support the Internet-Draft Password Policy for LDAP Directories (version 09). A subentry password policy effectively overrides settings in the default password policy defined in the OpenDJ configuration. Settings not supported or not included in the subentry password policy are thus inherited from the default password policy.

As a result, the following Internet-Draft password policy attributes override the default password policy when you set them in the subentry.

• pwdAllowUserChange, corresponding to the OpenDJ password policy property allow-user-password-changes

• pwdMustChange, corresponding to the OpenDJ password policy property force-change-on-reset

• pwdGraceAuthNLimit, corresponding to the OpenDJ password policy property grace-login-count

• pwdLockoutDuration, corresponding to the OpenDJ password policy property lockout-duration

• pwdMaxFailure, corresponding to the OpenDJ password policy property lockout-failure-count

• pwdFailureCountInterval, corresponding to the OpenDJ password policy property lockout-failure-expiration-interval

• pwdMaxAge, corresponding to the OpenDJ password policy property max-password-age

• pwdMinAge, corresponding to the OpenDJ password policy property min-password-age

• pwdAttribute, corresponding to the OpenDJ password policy property password-attribute

• pwdSafeModify, corresponding to the OpenDJ password policy property password-change-requires-current-password

• pwdExpireWarning, corresponding to the OpenDJ password policy property password-expiration-warning-interval

• pwdInHistory, corresponding to the OpenDJ password policy property password-history-count

The following Internet-Draft password policy attributes are not taken into account by OpenDJ.

• pwdCheckQuality, as OpenDJ has password validators. You can set password validators to use in the default password policy.

• pwdMinLength, as this is handled by the Length Based Password Validator. You can configure this as part of the default password policy.

• pwdLockout, as OpenDJ can deduce whether lockout is configured based on the values of other lockout-related password policy attributes.

Values of the following properties are inherited from the default password policy for Internet-Draft based password policies.

• account-status-notification-handlers

• allow-expired-password-changes

• allow-multiple-password-values

• allow-pre-encoded-passwords

• default-password-storage-schemes

• deprecated-password-storage-schemes

• expire-passwords-without-warning

• force-change-on-add

• idle-lockout-interval

• last-login-time-attribute

• last-login-time-format

• max-password-reset-age

• password-generator

• password-history-duration

• password-validators

• previous-last-login-time-formats

• require-change-by-time

• require-secure-authentication

• require-secure-password-changes

• skip-validation-for-administrators

• state-update-failure-policy

If you would rather specify password validators for your policy, you can configure password validators for a subentry password policy by adding the auxiliary object class pwdValidatorPolicy and setting the multi-valued attribute, ds-cfg-password-validator, to the DNs of the password validator configuration entries.

The following example shows a subentry password policy that references two password validator configuration entries. The Character Set password validator determines whether a proposed password is acceptable by checking whether it contains a sufficient number of characters from one or more user-defined character sets and ranges. The Length-Based password validator determines whether a proposed password is acceptable based on whether the number of characters it contains falls within an acceptable range of values. Both are enabled in the default OpenDJ directory server configuration.

dn: cn=Subentry Password Policy with Validators,dc=example,dc=com
objectClass: top
objectClass: subentry
objectClass: pwdPolicy
objectClass: pwdValidatorPolicy
cn: Subentry Password Policy with Validators
pwdLockout: TRUE
pwdMaxFailure: 3
pwdFailureCountInterval: 300
pwdLockoutDuration: 300
pwdAllowUserChange: TRUE
pwdSafeModify: TRUE
subtreeSpecification: {base "ou=people", specificationFilter



If a referenced password validator cannot be found, then OpenDJ directory server logs an error message when the password policy is invoked. This can occur for example when a subentry password policy is replicated to a directory server where the password validator is not (yet) configured. In that case when a user attempts to change their password, the server fails to find the referenced password validator.

### 12.1.3. Which Password Policy Applies

The password policy that applies to a user is identified by the operational attribute, pwdPolicySubentry.

$ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com uid=bjensen pwdPolicySubentry dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com pwdPolicySubentry: cn=Default Password Policy,cn=Password Policies,cn=config ## 12.2. Configuring Password Policies You configure server based password policies using the dsconfig command. Notice that server based password policies are part of the server configuration, and therefore not replicated. Alternatively, you can configure a subset of password policy features using subentry based password policies that are stored with the replicated server data. This section covers both server based and subentry based password policies. Procedure 12.1. To Adjust the Default Password Policy You can reconfigure the default password policy for example to enforce password expiration, check that passwords do not match dictionary words, and prevent password reuse. This default policy is a server based password policy. 1. Enable the appropriate password validator. $ dsconfig
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--validator-name Dictionary
--set enabled:true
--set check-substrings:true
--set min-substring-length:4
--trustAll
--no-prompt
2. Apply the changes to the default password policy.

$dsconfig set-password-policy-prop --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --policy-name "Default Password Policy" --set max-password-age:90d --set min-password-age:4w --set password-history-count:7 --set password-validator:Dictionary --trustAll --no-prompt 3. Check your work. $ dsconfig
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
Property                                  : Value(s)
------------------------------------------:--------------------------
force-change-on-reset                     : false
idle-lockout-interval                     : 0 s
lockout-duration                          : 0 s
lockout-failure-count                     : 0
lockout-failure-expiration-interval       : 0 s
max-password-age                          : 12 w 6 d
require-change-by-time                    : -
require-secure-authentication             : false
require-secure-password-changes           : false
Procedure 12.2. To Create a Server Based Password Policy

You can add a password policy for example for new users who have not yet used their credentials to bind.

1. Create the new password policy.

$dsconfig create-password-policy --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --policy-name "New Account Password Policy" --set default-password-storage-scheme:"Salted SHA-1" --set force-change-on-add:true --set password-attribute:userPassword --type password-policy --trustAll --no-prompt 2. Check your work. $ dsconfig
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
Property                                  : Value(s)
------------------------------------------:-------------
force-change-on-reset                     : false
idle-lockout-interval                     : 0 s
lockout-duration                          : 0 s
lockout-failure-count                     : 0
lockout-failure-expiration-interval       : 0 s
require-change-by-time                    : -
require-secure-authentication             : false
require-secure-password-changes           : false

If you use a password policy like this, you might want to change the user's policy again when the new user successfully updates the password.

Procedure 12.3. To Create a Subentry Based Password Policy

1. Create the entry that specifies the password policy.

$cat /path/to/subentry-pwp.ldif dn: cn=Subentry Password Policy,dc=example,dc=com objectClass: top objectClass: subentry objectClass: pwdPolicy cn: Subentry Password Policy pwdAttribute: userPassword pwdLockout: TRUE pwdMaxFailure: 3 pwdFailureCountInterval: 300 pwdLockoutDuration: 300 pwdAllowUserChange: TRUE pwdSafeModify: TRUE subtreeSpecification: {base "ou=people", specificationFilter "(isMemberOf=cn=Directory Administrators,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com)" } 2. Add the policy to the directory. $ ldapmodify
--port 1389
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--filename /path/to/subentry-pwp.ldif
ADD operation successful for DN cn=Subentry Password Policy,dc=example,dc=com
3. Check that the policy applies as specified.

In the example, the policy should apply to a Directory Administrator, while a normal user has the default password policy. Here, Kirsten Vaughan is a member of the Directory Administrators group, and Babs Jensen is not a member.

$ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com uid=kvaughan pwdPolicySubentry dn: uid=kvaughan,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com pwdPolicySubentry: cn=Subentry Password Policy,dc=example,dc=com$ ldapsearch
--port 1389
--baseDN dc=example,dc=com
uid=bjensen
pwdPolicySubentry
dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
pwdPolicySubentry: cn=Default Password Policy,cn=Password Policies,cn=config

You assign subentry based password policies for a subtree of the DIT by adding the policy to an LDAP subentry whose immediate superior is the root of the subtree. In other words you can add the subtree based password policy under ou=People,dc=example,dc=com, to have it apply to all entries under ou=People,dc=example,dc=com. You can further use the capabilities of LDAP subentries to refine the scope of application.

You assign server based password policies by using the ds-pwp-password-policy-dn attribute.

Procedure 12.4. To Assign a Password Policy to a User
1. Prevent users from selecting their own password policy.

$cat protectpwp.ldif dn: ou=People,dc=example,dc=com changetype: modify add: aci aci: (target ="ldap:///uid=*,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com")(targetattr = "ds-pwp-password-policy-dn")(version 3.0;acl "Cannot choose own pass word policy";deny (write)(userdn = "ldap:///self");)$ ldapmodify
--port 1389
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--filename protectpwp.ldif
Processing MODIFY request for ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
MODIFY operation successful for DN ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
2. Update the user's ds-pwp-password-policy-dn attribute.

$cat newuser.ldif dn: uid=newuser,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com uid: newuser objectClass: person objectClass: organizationalPerson objectClass: inetOrgPerson objectClass: top cn: New User sn: User ou: People mail: newuser@example.com userPassword: changeme ds-pwp-password-policy-dn: cn=New Account Password Policy,cn=Password Policies, cn=config$ ldapmodify
--port 1389
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--filename newuser.ldif
ADD operation successful for DN uid=newuser,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com

$ldapsearch --port 1389 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --baseDN dc=example,dc=com uid=newuser pwdPolicySubentry dn: uid=newuser,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com pwdPolicySubentry: cn=New Account Password Policy,cn=Password Policies,cn=config Procedure 12.5. To Assign a Password Policy to a Group 1. Create a subentry defining the collective attribute that sets the ds-pwp-password-policy-dn attribute for group members' entries. $ cat pwp-coll.ldif
objectClass: collectiveAttributeSubentry
objectClass: extensibleObject
objectClass: subentry
objectClass: top
word Policies,cn=config
subtreeSpecification: { base "ou=People", specificationFilter "(isMemberOf=

$ldapmodify --port 1389 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --defaultAdd --filename pwp-coll.ldif Processing ADD request for cn=Password Policy for Dir Admins,dc=example,dc=com ADD operation successful for DN cn=Password Policy for Dir Admins,dc=example,dc=com 2. Check your work. $ ldapsearch
--port 1389
--baseDN dc=example,dc=com
uid=kvaughan
pwdPolicySubentry
dn: uid=kvaughan,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
pwdPolicySubentry: cn=Root Password Policy,cn=Password Policies,cn=config
Procedure 12.6. To Assign Password Policy for an Entire Branch

You can use a collective attribute to assign a password policy to the entries under a base DN.

1. Create a password policy and collective attribute subentry to assign the policy to all entries under a base DN.

The following example creates a password policy, and then assigns that policy to entries under ou=People,dc=example,dc=com.

$cat collective-pwp.ldif dn: cn=People Password Policy,dc=example,dc=com objectClass: top objectClass: subentry objectClass: pwdPolicy cn: People Password Policy pwdAttribute: userPassword pwdLockout: TRUE pwdMaxFailure: 3 pwdFailureCountInterval: 300 pwdLockoutDuration: 300 pwdAllowUserChange: TRUE pwdSafeModify: TRUE subtreeSpecification: {} dn: cn=Assign People Password Policy,dc=example,dc=com objectClass: top objectClass: subentry objectClass: extensibleObject objectClass: collectiveAttributeSubentry cn: Assign People Password Policy ds-pwp-password-policy-dn;collective: cn=People Password Policy,dc=example,dc=com subtreeSpecification: { base "ou=people" }$ ldapmodify
--port 1389
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--filename collective-pwp.ldif
cn=Assign People Password Policy,dc=example,dc=com

Notice the subtree specification used to assign the policy, { base "ou=people" }. You can relax the subtree specification value to {} to apply the password policy to all entries the parent of the subentry, dc=example,dc=com, or further restrict the subtree specification by adding a specificationFilter. See Collective Attributes for more information.

$ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com "(uid=alutz)" pwdPolicySubentry dn: uid=alutz,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com pwdPolicySubentry: cn=People Password Policy,dc=example,dc=com If everything is correctly configured, then the password policy should be assigned to users whose entries are under ou=People,dc=example,dc=com. ## 12.4. Configuring Password Generation Password generators are used by OpenDJ during the LDAP password modify extended operation to construct a new password for the user. In other words, a directory administrator resetting a user's password can have OpenDJ directory server generate the new password. $ ldappasswordmodify
--port 1389
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--authzID "u:bjensen"
The LDAP password modify operation was successful
Generated Password:  eak77qdi

$dsconfig get-password-policy-prop --hostname opendj.example.com --port 4444 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --policy-name "Default Password Policy" --property password-generator Property : Value(s) -------------------:-------------------------- password-generator : Random Password Generator$ dsconfig
--hostname opendj.example.com
--port 4444
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
Property               : Value(s)
-----------------------:-----------------------------------------------------
enabled                : true
password-format        : "alpha:3,numeric:2,alpha:3"

Notice that the default configuration for the Random Password Generator defines two password-character-set values, and then uses those definitions in the password-format so that generated passwords have eight characters: three from the alpha set, followed by two from the numeric set, followed by three from the alpha set. The password-character-set name must be ASCII.

To set the password generator that OpenDJ employs when constructing a new password for a user, set the password-generator property for the password policy that applies to the user.

The following example does not change the password policy, but instead changes the Random Password Generator configuration, and then demonstrates a password being generated upon reset.

$dsconfig set-password-generator-prop --hostname opendj.example.com --port 4444 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --generator-name "Random Password Generator" --remove password-character-set:alpha:abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz --add password-character-set:alpha:ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz --add password-character-set:punct:,./\!@#\$%^&*:\;[]\"\'+=-_~\\
--set
--no-prompt
$ldappasswordmodify --port 1389 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --authzID "u:bjensen" The LDAP password modify operation was successful Generated Password: pld^06:)529HTq$'

If you also set up a password validator in the password policy as shown in Procedure 12.1, “To Adjust the Default Password Policy” and further described in Section 12.6, “Configuring Password Validation”, make sure the generated passwords are acceptable to the validator.

Password storage schemes encode new passwords provided by users so that they are stored in an encoded manner. This makes it difficult or impossible for someone to determine the clear-text passwords from the encoded values. Password storage schemes also determine whether a clear-text password provided by a client matches the encoded value stored in the server.

OpenDJ offers a variety of both reversible and one-way password storage schemes. Some schemes make it easy to recover the clear-text password, whereas others aim to make it computationally hard to do so.

$dsconfig list-password-storage-schemes --hostname opendj.example.com --port 4444 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password Password Storage Scheme : Type : enabled ------------------------:---------------:-------- 3DES : triple-des : true AES : aes : true Base64 : base64 : true Blowfish : blowfish : true Clear : clear : true CRYPT : crypt : true MD5 : md5 : true PBKDF2 : pbkdf2 : true RC4 : rc4 : true Salted MD5 : salted-md5 : true Salted SHA-1 : salted-sha1 : true Salted SHA-256 : salted-sha256 : true Salted SHA-384 : salted-sha384 : true Salted SHA-512 : salted-sha512 : true SHA-1 : sha1 : true As shown in Procedure 12.1, “To Adjust the Default Password Policy”, the default password storage scheme for users in Salted SHA-1. When you add users or import user entries with userPassword values in clear text, OpenDJ hashes them with the default password storage scheme. Root DN users have a different password policy by default, shown in Procedure 12.5, “To Assign a Password Policy to a Group”. The Root Password Policy uses Salted SHA-512 by default. You change the default password policy storage scheme for users by changing the applicable password policy, as shown in the following example. $ dsconfig
--hostname opendj.example.com
--port 4444
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--no-prompt

Notice that the change in default password storage scheme does not cause OpenDJ to update any stored password values. By default, OpenDJ only stores a password with the new storage scheme the next time that the password is changed.

OpenDJ prefixes passwords with the scheme used to encode them, which means it is straightforward to see which password storage scheme is in use. After the default password storage scheme is changed to PBKDF2, old user passwords remain encoded with Salted SHA-1.

$ldapsearch --port 1389 --bindDN uid=bjensen,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com --bindPassword hifalutin --baseDN dc=example,dc=com "(uid=bjensen)" userPassword dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com userPassword: {SSHA}Rc3tkAj1qP5zGiRkwDIWDFxrxpGgO8Fwh3aibg== When the password is changed, the new default password storage scheme takes effect, as shown in the following example. $ ldappasswordmodify
--port 1389
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--authzID "u:bjensen"
The LDAP password modify operation was successful
$ldapsearch --port 1389 --bindDN uid=bjensen,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com --bindPassword changeit --baseDN dc=example,dc=com "(uid=bjensen)" userPassword dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com userPassword: {PBKDF2}10000:O3V6G7y7n7AefOkRGNKQ5ukrMuO5uf+iEQ9ZLg== When you change the password storage scheme for users, realize that the user passwords must change in order for OpenDJ to encode them with the chosen storage scheme. If you are changing the storage scheme because the old scheme was too weak, then you no doubt want users to change their passwords anyway. If however the storage scheme change is not related to vulnerability, you can use the deprecated-password-storage-scheme property of the password policy to have OpenDJ store the password in the new format after successful authentication. This makes it possible to do password migration for active users without forcing users to change their passwords. $ ldapsearch
--port 1389
--bindDN uid=kvaughan,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com
--baseDN dc=example,dc=com
dn: uid=kvaughan,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com

$dsconfig set-password-policy-prop --hostname opendj.example.com --port 4444 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --policy-name "Default Password Policy" --set deprecated-password-storage-scheme:"Salted SHA-1" --no-prompt$ ldapsearch
--port 1389
--bindDN uid=kvaughan,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com
--baseDN dc=example,dc=com
dn: uid=kvaughan,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
userPassword: {PBKDF2}10000:L4dCYqSsNnf47YZ3a6aC8K2E3DChhHHhpcoUzg==

Notice that with deprecated-password-storage-scheme set appropriately, Kirsten Vaughan's password was hashed again after she authenticated successfully.

Password validators are responsible for determining whether a proposed password is acceptable for use and can run checks like ensuring the password meets minimum length requirements, that it has an appropriate range of characters, or that it is not in the history. OpenDJ directory server provides a variety of password validators.

$dsconfig list-password-validators --hostname opendj.example.com --port 4444 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password Password Validator : Type : enabled ------------------------------------:---------------------:-------- Attribute Value : attribute-value : true Character Set : character-set : true Dictionary : dictionary : false Length-Based Password Validator : length-based : true Repeated Characters : repeated-characters : true Similarity-Based Password Validator : similarity-based : true Unique Characters : unique-characters : true The password policy for a user specifies the set of password validators that should be used whenever that user provides a new password. By default no password validators are configured. You can see an example setting the Default Password Policy to use the Dictionary validator in Procedure 12.1, “To Adjust the Default Password Policy”. The following example shows how to set up a custom password validator and assign it to the default password policy. The custom password validator ensures passwords meet at least three of the following four criteria. Passwords are composed of: • English lowercase characters (a through z) • English uppercase characters (A through Z) • Base 10 digits (0 through 9) • Non-alphabetic characters (for example, !,$, #, %)

Notice how the character-set values are constructed. The initial 0: means the set is optional, whereas 1: would mean the set is required.

$dsconfig create-password-validator --hostname opendj.example.com --port 4444 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --validator-name "Custom Character Set Password Validator" --set allow-unclassified-characters:true --set enabled:true --set character-set:0:abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz --set character-set:0:ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ --set character-set:0:0123456789 --set character-set:0:!\"#\$%&\'*+,-./:\;\\<=\>?@[\\]^_\{\|}~
--set min-character-sets:3
--type character-set
--no-prompt

$dsconfig set-password-policy-prop --hostname opendj.example.com --port 4444 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --policy-name "Default Password Policy" --set password-validator:"Custom Character Set Password Validator" --no-prompt$ ldappasswordmodify
--port 1389
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--authzID "u:bjensen"
--newPassword '!ABcd$%^' In the preceding example, the character set of ASCII punctuation, !\"#\$%&\'*+,-./:\;\\<=\>?@[\\]^_\{\|}~, is hard to read because of all the escape characters. In practice it can be easier to enter sequences like that by using dsconfig in interactive mode, and letting it do the escaping for you. You can also use the --commandFilePath {path} option to save the result of your interactive session to a file for use in scripts later.

An attempt to set an invalid password fails as shown in the following example.

$ldappasswordmodify --port 1389 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --authzID "u:bjensen" --newPassword hifalutin The LDAP password modify operation failed with result code 19 Error Message: The provided new password failed the validation checks defined in the server: The provided password did not contain characters from at least 3 of the following character sets or ranges: 'ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ', '!"#$%&'()*+,-./:;<=\>?@[\]^_{|}~', '0123456789', 'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz'

Validation does not affect existing passwords, but only takes effect when the password is updated.

You can reference password validators from subentry password policies. See Section 12.1.2, “Subentry Based Password Policies” for an example.

The sample password policies in this section demonstrate OpenDJ server based password policies for several common cases.

Example 12.1. Enforce Regular Password Changes

The following commands configure an OpenDJ server based password policy that sets age limits on passwords, requiring that they change periodically. It also sets the number of passwords to keep in the password history of the entry, thereby preventing users from reusing the same password on consecutive changes.

$dsconfig create-password-policy --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --policy-name "Enforce Regular Password Changes" --type password-policy --set default-password-storage-scheme:"Salted SHA-1" --set password-attribute:userPassword --set max-password-age:13w --set min-password-age:4w --set password-history-count:7 --trustAll --no-prompt See also Section 12.3, “Assigning Password Policies” for instructions on using the policy. Example 12.2. Track Last Login Time The following commands configure an OpenDJ server based password policy that keeps track of the last successful login. First, set up an attribute to which OpenDJ directory server can write a timestamp value on successful login. For additional information also see the example, Search: List Active Accounts. $ ldapmodify
--port 1389
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
dn: cn=schema
changetype: modify
DESC 'Last time the user logged in'
EQUALITY generalizedTimeMatch
ORDERING generalizedTimeOrderingMatch
SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.24
SINGLE-VALUE
NO-USER-MODIFICATION
USAGE directoryOperation
X-ORIGIN 'OpenDJ example documentation' )

Processing MODIFY request for cn=schema
MODIFY operation successful for DN cn=schema

Next, create the password policy that causes OpenDJ directory server to write the timestamp to the attribute on successful login.

$dsconfig create-password-policy --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --policy-name "Track Last Login Time" --type password-policy --set default-password-storage-scheme:"Salted SHA-1" --set password-attribute:userPassword --set last-login-time-attribute:lastLoginTime --set last-login-time-format:"yyyyMMddHH'Z'" --trustAll --no-prompt See also Section 12.3, “Assigning Password Policies” for instructions on using the policy. Example 12.3. Deprecate a Password Storage Scheme The following commands configure an OpenDJ server based password policy that you can use when deprecating a password storage scheme. This policy uses elements from Example 12.1, “Enforce Regular Password Changes”, as OpenDJ directory server only employs the new password storage scheme to hash or to encrypt passwords when a password changes. $ dsconfig create-password-policy
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--policy-name "Deprecate a Password Storage Scheme"
--trustAll
--no-prompt

Example 12.4. Lock Idle Accounts

The following commands configure an OpenDJ server based password policy that locks idle accounts. This policy extends the example from Example 12.2, “Track Last Login Time” as OpenDJ directory server must track last successful login time in order to calculate how long the account has been idle. You must first add the lastLoginTime attribute type in order for OpenDJ directory server to accept this new password policy.

$dsconfig create-password-policy --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --policy-name "Lock Idle Accounts" --type password-policy --set default-password-storage-scheme:"Salted SHA-1" --set password-attribute:userPassword --set last-login-time-attribute:lastLoginTime --set last-login-time-format:"yyyyMMddHH'Z'" --set idle-lockout-interval:13w --trustAll --no-prompt See also Section 12.3, “Assigning Password Policies”, and Configuring Account Lockout. Example 12.5. Allow Grace Login to Change Expired Password The following commands configure an OpenDJ server based password policy that allows users to login after their password has expired in order to choose a new password. $ dsconfig create-password-policy
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--trustAll
--no-prompt

The following commands configure an OpenDJ server based password policy that requires new users to change their password after logging in for the first time, and also requires users to change their password after their password is reset.

$dsconfig create-password-policy --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --policy-name "Require Password Change on Add or Reset" --type password-policy --set default-password-storage-scheme:"Salted SHA-1" --set password-attribute:userPassword --set force-change-on-add:true --set force-change-on-reset:true --trustAll --no-prompt See also Section 12.3, “Assigning Password Policies” for instructions on using the policy. ## Chapter 13. Implementing Account Lockout & Notification OpenDJ directory server supports automatic account lockout. The aim of account lockout is not to punish users who mistype their passwords, but instead to protect the directory against attacks in which the attacker attempts to guess a user password, repeatedly attempting to bind until success is achieved. Account lockout disables a user account after a specified number of successive authentication failures. When you implement account lockout, you can opt to have OpenDJ directory server unlock the account again after a specified interval, or you can leave the account locked until the password is reset. ### Note When you configure account lockout as part of password policy, OpenDJ locks an account after the specified number of consecutive authentication failures. Account lockout is not transactional across a replication topology, however. Under normal circumstances, replication nevertheless propagates lockout quickly. If ever replication is delayed, an attacker with direct access to multiple replicas could try to authenticate up to the specified number of times on each replica before being locked out on all replicas. This chapter shows you how to set up account lockout policies, and how to intervene manually to lock and unlock accounts. ## 13.1. Configuring Account Lockout Account lockout is configured as part of password policy. This section demonstrates configuring account lockout as part of the default password policy. Users are allowed three consecutive failures before being locked out for five minutes. Failures themselves also expire after five minutes. Change the default password policy to activate lockout using the dsconfig command. As the password policy is part of the server configuration, you must manually apply the changes to each replica in a replication topology. $ dsconfig
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--set lockout-failure-count:3
--set lockout-duration:5m
--set lockout-failure-expiration-interval:5m
--trustAll
--no-prompt

Users having the default password policy are then locked out after three failed attempts in succession.

$ldapsearch --port 1389 --bindDN "uid=bjensen,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com" --bindPassword hifalutin --baseDN dc=example,dc=com uid=bjensen mail dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com mail: bjensen@example.com$ ldapsearch
--port 1389
--bindDN "uid=bjensen,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com"
--baseDN dc=example,dc=com
uid=bjensen
mail
The simple bind attempt failed
Result Code:  49 (Invalid Credentials)
$ldapsearch --port 1389 --bindDN "uid=bjensen,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com" --bindPassword fatfngrs --baseDN dc=example,dc=com uid=bjensen mail The simple bind attempt failed Result Code: 49 (Invalid Credentials)$ ldapsearch
--port 1389
--bindDN "uid=bjensen,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com"
--baseDN dc=example,dc=com
uid=bjensen
mail
The simple bind attempt failed
Result Code:  49 (Invalid Credentials)
$ldapsearch --port 1389 --bindDN "uid=bjensen,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com" --bindPassword hifalutin --baseDN dc=example,dc=com uid=bjensen mail The simple bind attempt failed Result Code: 49 (Invalid Credentials) ## 13.2. Managing Accounts Manually This section covers disabling and enabling accounts by using the manage-account command. Password reset is covered in the chapter on performing LDAP operations. For the following examples, the directory admin user, Kirsten Vaughan, has ds-privilege-name: password-reset, and the following ACI on ou=People,dc=example,dc=com. (target="ldap:///ou=People,dc=example,dc=com") (targetattr ="*||+")( version 3.0;acl "Admins can run amok"; allow(all) groupdn = "ldap:///cn=Directory Administrators,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com";) Procedure 13.1. To Disable an Account • Set the account status to disabled with the manage-account command. $ manage-account
set-account-is-disabled
--port 4444
--bindDN "uid=kvaughan,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com"
--operationValue true
--targetDN uid=bjensen,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com
--trustAll
Account Is Disabled:  true
Procedure 13.2. To Activate a Disabled Account
• Clear the disabled status using the manage-account command.

$manage-account clear-account-is-disabled --port 4444 --bindDN "uid=kvaughan,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com" --bindPassword bribery --targetDN uid=bjensen,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com --trustAll Account Is Disabled: false ## 13.3. Managing Account Status Notification OpenDJ can send mail about account status changes. OpenDJ needs an SMTP server to send messages, and needs templates for the mail it sends. By default, message templates are in English, under /path/to/opendj/config/messages/. OpenDJ generates notifications only when OpenDJ writes to an entry or evaluates a user entry for authentication. OpenDJ generates account enabled and account disabled notifications when the user account is enabled or disabled with the manage-account command, which writes to the entry. OpenDJ generates password expiration notifications when a user tries to bind. For example, if you set up OpenDJ to send a notification about password expiration, that notification gets triggered when the user authenticates during the password expiration warning interval. OpenDJ does not automatically scan entries to send password expiry notifications. OpenDJ does implement controls that you can pass in an LDAP search to determine whether a user's password is about to expire. See the appendix on LDAP Controls for a list. You can send notifications then based on the results of your search. Procedure 13.3. To Mail Users About Account Status The following steps demonstrate how to set up notifications. Whether OpenDJ sends notifications depends on the settings in the password policy, and on account activity as described above. 1. Identify the SMTP server to which OpenDJ sends messages. $ dsconfig
set-global-configuration-prop
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--set smtp-server:smtp.example.com
--trustAll
--no-prompt
2. Set up OpenDJ to be able to mail users about account status.

$dsconfig set-account-status-notification-handler-prop --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --handler-name "SMTP Handler" --set enabled:true --set email-address-attribute-type:mail --trustAll --no-prompt Notice that OpenDJ finds the user's mail address on the attribute on the user's entry, specified by email-address-attribute-type. You can also configure the message-subject and message-template-file properties. Try interactive mode if you plan to do so. You find templates for messages by default under the config/messages directory. You can edit the templates to suit your purposes. 3. Adjust applicable password policies to use the account status notification handler you configured. $ dsconfig
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--trustAll
--no-prompt

When editing the config/messages templates to suit your purposes, you can use the following tokens to have OpenDJ update the message text dynamically.

%%notification-type%%

This token is replaced with the name of the account status notification type for the notification.

%%notification-message%%

This token is replaced with the message for the account status notification.

%%notification-user-dn%%

This token is replaced with the string representation of the DN for the user that is the target of the account status notification.

%%notification-user-attr:attrname%%

This token is replaced with the value of the attribute specified by attrname from the user's entry. If the specified attribute has multiple values, then OpenDJ uses the first value encountered. If the specified attribute does not have any values, then OpenDJ replaces it with an emtpy string.

%%notification-property:propname%%

This token is replaced with the value of the specified notification property from the account status notification. If the specified property has multiple values, then OpenDJ uses the first value encountered. If the specified property does not have any values, then OpenDJ replaces it with an emtpy string. Valid propname values include the following.

• account-unlock-time

• new-password

• old-password

• password-expiration-time

• password-policy-dn

• seconds-until-expiration

• seconds-until-unlock

• time-until-expiration

• time-until-unlock

## Chapter 14. Setting Resource Limits

This chapter shows you how to set resource limits that prevent directory clients from using an unfair share of system resources.

## 14.1. Limiting Search Resources

Well-written directory client applications limit the scope of their searches with filters that narrow the number of results returned. By default, OpenDJ also only allows users with appropriate privileges to perform unindexed searches.

You can further adjust additional limits on search operations, such as the following.

• The lookthrough limit defines the maximum number of candidate entries OpenDJ considers when processing a search.

The default lookthrough limit, set by using the global server property lookthrough-limit, is 5000.

You can override the limit for a particular user by changing the operational attribute, ds-rlim-lookthrough-limit, on the user's entry.

• The size limit sets the maximum number of entries returned for a search.

The default size limit, set by using the global server property size-limit, is 1000.

You can override the limit for a particular user by changing the operational attribute, ds-rlim-size-limit, on the user's entry.

• The time limit defines the maximum processing time OpenDJ devotes to a search operation.

The default time limit, set by using the global server property time-limit, is 1 minute.

You can override the limit for a particular user by changing the operational attribute, ds-rlim-time-limit, on the user's entry. Times for ds-rlim-time-limit are expressed in seconds.

• The idle time limit defines how long OpenDJ allows idle connections to remain open.

No default idle time limit is set. You can set an idle time limit by using the global server property idle-time-limit.

You can override the limit for a particular user by changing the operational attribute, ds-rlim-idle-time-limit, on the user's entry. Times for ds-rlim-idle-time-limit are expressed in seconds.

• The maximum number of persistent searches can be set using the global server property max-psearches.

Procedure 14.1. To Set Search Limits For a User
• Change the user entry to set the limits to override.

$cat limit.ldif dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com changetype: modify add: ds-rlim-size-limit ds-rlim-size-limit: 10$ ldapmodify
--port 1389
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--filename limit.ldif
Processing MODIFY request for uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
MODIFY operation successful for DN uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com

Now when Babs Jensen performs a search returning more than 10 entries, she sees the following message.

Result Code:  4 (Size Limit Exceeded)
Additional Information:  This search operation has sent the maximum of
10 entries to the client
Procedure 14.2. To Set Search Limits For a Group
1. Create an LDAP subentry to specify the limits using collective attributes.

$cat grouplim.ldif dn: cn=Remove Administrator Search Limits,dc=example,dc=com objectClass: collectiveAttributeSubentry objectClass: extensibleObject objectClass: subentry objectClass: top cn: Remove Administrator Search Limits ds-rlim-lookthrough-limit;collective: 0 ds-rlim-size-limit;collective: 0 ds-rlim-time-limit;collective: 0 subtreeSpecification: {base "ou=people", specificationFilter " (isMemberOf=cn=Directory Administrators,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com)" }$ ldapmodify
--port 1389
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--filename grouplim.ldif
cn=Remove Administrator Search Limits,dc=example,dc=com
2. Check the results.

$ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com uid=kvaughan +|grep ds-rlim ds-rlim-lookthrough-limit: 0 ds-rlim-time-limit: 0 ds-rlim-size-limit: 0 ## 14.2. Limiting Idle Time If you have applications that leave connections open for long periods, OpenDJ can end up devoting resources to maintaining connections that are no longer used. If your network does not drop such connections eventually, you can configure OpenDJ to drop them by setting the global configuration property, idle-time-limit. By default, no idle time limit is set. If your network load balancer is configured to drop connections that have been idle for some time, make sure you set the OpenDJ idle time limit to a lower value than the idle time limit for the load balancer. This helps to ensure that idle connections are shut down in orderly fashion. Setting the OpenDJ limit lower than the load balancer limit is particularly useful with load balancers that drop idle connections without cleanly closing the connection and notifying the client and server. ### Note OpenDJ does not enforce idle timeout for persistent searches. $ dsconfig
set-global-configuration-prop
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--set idle-time-limit:24h
--trustAll
--no-prompt

The example shown sets the idle time limit to 24 hours.

## 14.3. Limiting Maximum Request Size

The default maximum request size of 5 MB, set using the advanced connection handler property max-request-size, is sufficient to satisfy most client requests. Yet, there are some cases where you might need to raise the request size limit. For example, if clients add groups with large numbers of members, those add requests can go beyond the 5 MB limit.

$dsconfig set-connection-handler-prop --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --handler-name "LDAP Connection Handler" --set max-request-size:20mb --trustAll --no-prompt The example shown sets the maximum request size on the LDAP connection handler to 20 MB. ## Chapter 15. Working With Groups of Entries OpenDJ supports several methods of grouping entries in the directory. Static groups list their members, whereas dynamic groups look up their membership based on an LDAP filter. OpenDJ also supports virtual static groups, which uses a dynamic group style definition, but allows applications to list group members as if the group were static. When listing entries in static groups, you must also have a mechanism for removing entries from the list when they are deleted or modified in ways that end their membership. OpenDJ makes that possible with referential integrity functionality. This chapter demonstrates how to work with groups. ### Tip The examples in this chapter assume that an ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com entry already exists. If you imported data from Example.ldif, then you already have the entry. If you generated data during setup and did not create an organizational unit for groups yet, create the entry before you try the examples. $ ldapmodify
--port 1389
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
dn: ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com
objectClass: organizationalunit
objectClass: top
ou: Groups

ADD operation successful for DN ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com

## 15.1. Creating Static Groups

A static group is expressed as an entry that enumerates all the entries that belong to the group. Static group entries grow as their membership increases.

Static group entries can take the standard object class groupOfNames where each member attribute value is a distinguished name of an entry, or groupOfUniqueNames where each uniqueMember attribute value has Name and Optional UID syntax.[16] Like other LDAP attributes, member and uniqueMember attributes take sets of unique values.

Static group entries can also have the object class groupOfEntries, which is like groupOfNames except that it is designed to allow groups not to have members.

When creating a group entry, use groupOfNames or groupOfEntries where possible.

To create a static group, add a group entry such as the following to the directory.

$cat static.ldif dn: cn=My Static Group,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com cn: My Static Group objectClass: groupOfNames objectClass: top ou: Groups member: uid=ahunter,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com member: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com member: uid=tmorris,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com$ ldapmodify
--port 1389
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--filename static.ldif
Processing ADD request for cn=My Static Group,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com
ADD operation successful for DN cn=My Static Group,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com

To change group membership, modify the values of the membership attribute.

$cat add2grp.ldif dn: cn=My Static Group,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com changetype: modify add: member member: uid=scarter,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com$ ldapmodify
--port 1389
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
Processing MODIFY request for cn=My Static Group,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com
MODIFY operation successful for DN
cn=My Static Group,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com
$ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com "(cn=My Static Group)" dn: cn=My Static Group,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com ou: Groups objectClass: groupOfNames objectClass: top member: uid=ahunter,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com member: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com member: uid=tmorris,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com member: uid=scarter,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com cn: My Static Group RFC 4519 says a groupOfNames entry must have at least one member. Although OpenDJ allows you to create a groupOfNames without members, strictly speaking that behavior is not standard. Alternatively, you can use the groupOfEntries object class as shown in the following example. $ cat group-of-entries.ldif
dn: cn=Initially Empty Static Group,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com
cn: Initially Empty Static Group
objectClass: groupOfEntries
objectClass: top
ou: Groups

$ldapmodify --port 1389 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --defaultAdd --filename group-of-entries.ldif Processing ADD request for cn=Initially Empty Static Group,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com ADD operation successful for DN cn=Initially Empty Static Group,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com$ cat add-members.ldif
# Now add some members to the group.
dn: cn=Initially Empty Static Group,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com
changetype: modify
member: uid=ahunter,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=tmorris,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=scarter,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com

$ldapmodify --port 1389 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --filename add-members.ldif Processing MODIFY request for cn=Initially Empty Static Group,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com MODIFY operation successful for DN cn=Initially Empty Static Group,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com ## 15.2. Creating Dynamic Groups A dynamic group specifies members using LDAP URLs. Dynamic groups entries can stay small even as their membership increases. Dynamic group entries take the groupOfURLs object class, with one or more memberURL values specifying LDAP URLs to identify group members. To create a dynamic group, add a group entry such as the following to the directory. The following example builds a dynamic group of entries effectively matching the filter "(l=Cupertino)" (users whose location is Cupertino). Change the filter if your data is different, and so no entries have l: Cupertino. $ cat dynamic.ldif
dn: cn=My Dynamic Group,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com
cn: My Dynamic Group
objectClass: top
objectClass: groupOfURLs
ou: Groups
memberURL: ldap:///ou=People,dc=example,dc=com??sub?l=Cupertino

$ldapmodify --port 1389 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --defaultAdd --filename dynamic.ldif Processing ADD request for cn=My Dynamic Group,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com ADD operation successful for DN cn=My Dynamic Group,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com Group membership changes dynamically as entries change to match the memberURL values. $ ldapsearch
--port 1389
--baseDN dc=example,dc=com
"(&(uid=*jensen)(isMemberOf=cn=My Dynamic Group,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com))"
mail
dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
mail: bjensen@example.com

dn: uid=rjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
mail: rjensen@example.com

$ldapmodify --port 1389 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password dn: uid=ajensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com changetype: modify replace: l l: Cupertino Processing MODIFY request for uid=ajensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com MODIFY operation successful for DN uid=ajensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com ^D$ ldapsearch
--port 1389
--baseDN dc=example,dc=com
"(&(uid=*jensen)(isMemberOf=cn=My Dynamic Group,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com))"
mail
dn: uid=ajensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
mail: ajensen@example.com

dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
mail: bjensen@example.com

dn: uid=rjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
mail: rjensen@example.com

## 15.3. Creating Virtual Static Groups

OpenDJ lets you create virtual static groups, which let applications see dynamic groups as what appear to be static groups.

The virtual static group takes auxiliary object class ds-virtual-static-group. Virtual static groups also take either the object class groupOfNames, or groupOfUniqueNames, but instead of having member or uniqueMember attributes, have ds-target-group-dn attributes pointing to other groups.

Generating the list of members can be resource intensive for large groups, so by default you cannot retrieve the list of members. You can change this with the dsconfig command by setting the Virtual Static member or Virtual Static uniqueMember property.

$dsconfig set-virtual-attribute-prop --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --name "Virtual Static member" --set allow-retrieving-membership:true --trustAll --no-prompt The following example creates a virtual static group, and reads the group entry with all members. $ cat virtual.ldif
dn: cn=Virtual Static,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com
cn: Virtual Static
objectclass: top
objectclass: groupOfNames
objectclass: ds-virtual-static-group
ds-target-group-dn: cn=My Dynamic Group,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com

$ldapmodify --port 1389 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --defaultAdd --filename virtual.ldif Processing ADD request for cn=Virtual Static,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com ADD operation successful for DN cn=Virtual Static,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com$ ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com "(cn=Virtual Static)"
dn: cn=Virtual Static,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com
objectClass: groupOfNames
objectClass: ds-virtual-static-group
objectClass: top
member: uid=jwalker,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=jmuffly,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=tlabonte,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=dakers,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=jreuter,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=rfisher,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=pshelton,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=rjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=jcampaig,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=mjablons,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=mlangdon,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=aknutson,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=bplante,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=awalker,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=smason,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=ewalker,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=dthorud,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=btalbot,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=tcruse,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=kcarter,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=aworrell,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=ajensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=cwallace,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=mwhite,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=kschmith,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=mtalbot,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=tschmith,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=gfarmer,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=speterso,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=prose,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=jbourke,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=mtyler,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=abergin,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
member: uid=mschneid,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
cn: Virtual Static
ds-target-group-dn: cn=My Dynamic Group,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com

## 15.4. Looking Up Group Membership

OpenDJ lets you look up which groups a user belongs to by using the isMemberOf attribute.

$ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com uid=bjensen isMemberOf dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com isMemberOf: cn=My Static Group,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com isMemberOf: cn=Virtual Static,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com isMemberOf: cn=My Dynamic Group,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com You must request isMemberOf explicitly. ## 15.5. Configuring Referential Integrity When you delete or rename an entry that belongs to static groups, that entry's DN must be removed or changed in the list of each group to which it belongs. You can configure OpenDJ to resolve membership on your behalf after the change operation succeeds by enabling referential integrity. Referential integrity functionality is implemented as a plugin. The referential integrity plugin is disabled by default. To enable the plugin, use the dsconfig command. $ dsconfig
set-plugin-prop
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--plugin-name "Referential Integrity"
--set enabled:true
--trustAll --no-prompt

With the plugin enabled, you can see OpenDJ referential integrity resolving group membership automatically.

$ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com "(cn=My Static Group)" dn: cn=My Static Group,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com ou: Groups objectClass: groupOfNames objectClass: top member: uid=ahunter,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com member: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com member: uid=tmorris,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com member: uid=scarter,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com cn: My Static Group$ ldapdelete
--port 1389
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
uid=scarter,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
Processing DELETE request for uid=scarter,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
DELETE operation successful for DN uid=scarter,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
$ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com "(cn=My Static Group)" dn: cn=My Static Group,ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com ou: Groups objectClass: groupOfNames objectClass: top cn: My Static Group member: uid=ahunter,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com member: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com member: uid=tmorris,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com By default the referential integrity plugin is configured to manage member and uniqueMember attributes. These attributes take values that are DNs, and are indexed for equality by default. Before you add an additional attribute to manage, make sure that it has DN syntax and that it is indexed for equality. OpenDJ requires that the attribute be indexed because an unindexed search for integrity would potentially consume too many of the server's resources. Attribute syntax is explained in the chapter on Managing Schema. For instructions on indexing attributes, see the section on Configuring & Rebuilding Indexes. You can also configure the referential integrity plugin to check that new entries added to groups actually exist in the directory by setting the check-references property to true. You can specify additional criteria once you have activated the check. To ensure that entries added must match a filter, set the check-references-filter-criteria to identify the attribute and the filter. For example, you can specify that group members must be person entries by setting check-references-filter-criteria to member:(objectclass=person). To ensure that entries must be located in the same naming context, set check-references-scope-criteria to naming-context. [16] Name and Optional UID syntax values are a DN optionally followed by #BitString. The BitString, such as '0101111101'B, serves to distinguish the entry from another entry having the same DN, which can occur when the original entry was deleted and a new entry created with the same DN. ## Chapter 16. Implementing Attribute Value Uniqueness Some attribute values ought to remain unique. If you are using uid values as RDNs to distinguish between millions of user entries stored under ou=People, then you do not want your directory to contain two or more identical uid values. If your credit card or mobile number is stored as an attribute value on your directory entry, you certainly do not want to share that credit card or mobile number with another customer. The same is true for your email address. The difficulty for you as directory administrator lies in implementing attribute value uniqueness without sacrificing the high availability that comes from using OpenDJ's loosely consistent, multi-master data replication. Indeed OpenDJ's replication model lets you maintain write access during network outages for directory applications. Yet, write access during a network outage can result in the same, theoretically unique attribute value getting assigned to two different entries at once. You do not notice the problem until the network outage goes away and replication resumes. This chapter shows you how to set up attribute value uniqueness in your directory environment with the following procedures. OpenDJ directory server uses the unique attribute plugin to handle attribute value uniqueness. As shown in the examples in this chapter, you can configure the unique attribute plugin to handle one or more attributes and to handle entries under one or more base DNs. You can also configure multiple instances of the plugin for the same OpenDJ directory server. Procedure 16.1. To Enable Unique UIDs OpenDJ provides a unique attribute plugin that you configure by using the dsconfig command. By default, the plugin is prepared to ensure attribute values are unique for uid attributes. 1. Set the base DN where uid should have unique values, and enable the plugin. $ dsconfig
set-plugin-prop
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--plugin-name "UID Unique Attribute"
--set base-dn:ou=people,dc=example,dc=com
--set enabled:true
--trustAll
--no-prompt

Alternatively, you can specify multiple base DNs for unique values across multiple suffixes.

$dsconfig set-plugin-prop --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDn "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --plugin-name "UID Unique Attribute" --set enabled:true --add base-dn:ou=people,dc=example,dc=com --add base-dn:ou=people,dc=example,dc=org --trustAll --no-prompt 2. Check that the plugin is working correctly. $ cat bjensen.ldif
dn: uid=ajensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
changetype: modify
uid: bjensen

$ldapmodify --defaultAdd --port 1389 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --filename bjensen.ldif Processing MODIFY request for uid=ajensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com MODIFY operation failed Result Code: 19 (Constraint Violation) Additional Information: A unique attribute conflict was detected for \ attribute uid: value bjensen already exists in entry uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com If you have set up multiple suffixes, you might try something like this. $ cat bjensen.ldif
dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=org
objectClass: top
objectClass: person
objectClass: organizationalPerson
objectClass: inetOrgPerson
cn: Babs
sn: Jensen
uid: bjensen

$ldapmodify --port 1389 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --defaultAdd --filename bjensen.ldif Processing ADD request for uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=org ADD operation failed Result Code: 19 (Constraint Violation) Additional Information: A unique attribute conflict was detected for attribute uid: value bjensen already exists in entry uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com Procedure 16.2. To Enable Unique Values For Other Attributes You can also configure the unique attribute plugin for use with other attributes, such as mail, mobile, or attributes you define, for example cardNumber. 1. Before you set up the plugin, index the attribute for equality. See Configuring & Rebuilding Indexes for instructions. 2. Set up the plugin configuration for your attribute. You can either add the attribute to an existing plugin configuration, or create a new plugin configuration including the attribute. When choosing between these alternatives, keep in mind that values must be unique across the attributes and base DNs specified in each plugin configuration. Therefore only group attributes together in the same configuration if you want each value to be unique for all attributes. For example, you might create a single plugin configuration for telephone, fax, mobile, and pager numbers. As an alternative example, suppose user IDs are numeric, that user entries also specify uidNumber, and that user IDs are normally the same as their uidNumbers. In that case you create separate unique attribute configurations for uid and uidNumber. • If you want to add the attribute to an existing plugin configuration, do so as shown in the following example which uses the plugin configuration from Procedure 16.1, “To Enable Unique UIDs”. $ dsconfig
set-plugin-prop
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--plugin-name "UID Unique Attribute"
--trustAll
--no-prompt
• If you want to create a new plugin configuration, do so as shown in the following example.

$dsconfig create-plugin --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --plugin-name "Unique mobile numbers" --type unique-attribute --set enabled:true --set base-dn:ou=people,dc=example,dc=com --set type:mobile --trustAll --no-prompt 3. Check that the plugin is working correctly. $ cat mobile.ldif
dn: uid=ajensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
changetype: modify
mobile: +1 828 555 1212

dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
changetype: modify
mobile: +1 828 555 1212

$ldapmodify --defaultAdd --port 1389 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --filename mobile.ldif Processing MODIFY request for uid=ajensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com MODIFY operation successful for DN uid=ajensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com Processing MODIFY request for uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com MODIFY operation failed Result Code: 19 (Constraint Violation) Additional Information: A unique attribute conflict was detected for attribute mobile: value +1 828 555 1212 already exists in entry uid=ajensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com Procedure 16.3. To Limit The Scope of Uniqueness In some cases you need attribute uniqueness separately for different base DNs in your directory. For example, you need all uid values to remain unique both for users in dc=example,dc=com and dc=example,dc=org, but it is not a problem to have one entry under each base DN with the same user ID as the organizations are separate. The following steps demonstrate how to limit the scope of uniqueness by creating separate configuration entries for the unique attribute plugin. 1. If the attribute you target is not indexed for equality by default, index the attribute for equality. See Configuring & Rebuilding Indexes for instructions. The examples in this procedure target the user ID attribute, uid, which is indexed for equality by default. 2. For each base DN, set up a configuration entry that ensures the target attribute values are unique. $ dsconfig
create-plugin
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--plugin-name "Unique Example.com UIDs"
--type unique-attribute
--set enabled:true
--set base-dn:dc=example,dc=com
--set type:uid
--trustAll
--no-prompt
$dsconfig create-plugin --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --plugin-name "Unique Example.org UIDs" --type unique-attribute --set enabled:true --set base-dn:dc=example,dc=org --set type:uid --trustAll --no-prompt 3. Check that the plugin is working correctly. $ cat uniq-ids.ldif
dn: uid=unique,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
uid: unique
givenName: Unique
objectClass: person
objectClass: organizationalPerson
objectClass: inetOrgPerson
objectClass: top
cn: Unique Person
sn: Person

dn: uid=unique,ou=People,dc=example,dc=org
uid: unique
givenName: Unique
objectClass: person
objectClass: organizationalPerson
objectClass: inetOrgPerson
objectClass: top
cn: Unique Person
sn: Person

dn: uid=copycat,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
uid: unique
uid: copycat
givenName: Copycat
objectClass: person
objectClass: organizationalPerson
objectClass: inetOrgPerson
objectClass: top
cn: Copycat Person
sn: Person

MAY ( userPassword $telephoneNumber$ seeAlso $description ) X-ORIGIN 'RFC 4519' ) Entries all have an attribute identifying their object classes, called objectClass. Object class definitions start with an object identifier (OID), and generally a short name that is easier to remember than the OID. The definition here says that the person object class inherits from the top object class, which is the top-level parent of all object classes. When you view the objectclass attribute values on an entry, you see the list of object classes that the entry takes. An entry can have one STRUCTURAL object class inheritance branch, such as top - person - organizationalPerson - inetOrgPerson. Yet entries can have multiple AUXILIARY object classes. The object class then defines the attribute types that must be included, and the attribute types that may be included on entries having the object class. • An attribute syntax constrains what directory clients can store as attribute values. An attribute syntax is identified in an attribute type definition by its OID. String-based syntax OIDs are optionally followed by a number, set between braces, that represents a minimum upper bound on the number of characters in the attribute value. For example, in the attribute type definition shown above, the syntax is 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.26{256}. The syntax is an IA5 string (composed of characters from the international version of the ASCII character set) that can contain at least 256 characters. You can find a table matching attribute syntax OIDs with their human-readable names in RFC 4517, Appendix A. Summary of Syntax Object Identifiers. The RFC describes attribute syntaxes in detail. Alternatively, you can see the attribute syntaxes that OpenDJ supports by opening the OpenDJ Control Panel and browsing to Schema > Manage Schema > Attribute Syntaxes. You can also list them by using the dsconfig command. Although attribute syntaxes are often specified in attribute type definitions, directory servers do not always check that attribute values comply with attribute syntaxes. OpenDJ directory server does tend to enforce compliance by default, in particular for certificates, country strings, directory strings, JPEG photos, and telephone numbers. The aim is to avoid accumulating garbage in your directory data. If you are trying unsuccessfully to import non-compliant data from a more lenient directory server, you can either clean the data before importing it, or if cleaning the data is not an option, read Section 17.3, “Relaxing Schema Checking to Import Legacy Data”. When creating your own attribute type definitions, use existing attribute syntaxes where possible. If you must create your own attribute syntax, then consider the extensions in Extensions for Attribute Syntax Descriptions. • Matching rules determine how the directory server compares attribute values to assertion values for LDAP search and LDAP compare operations. For example, suppose you search with the filter (uid=bjensen). The assertion value in this case is bjensen. OpenDJ has the following schema definition for the user ID attribute. attributeTypes: ( 0.9.2342.19200300.100.1.1 NAME ( 'uid' 'userid' ) EQUALITY caseIgnoreMatch SUBSTR caseIgnoreSubstringsMatch SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.15{256} X-ORIGIN 'RFC 4519' ) When finding an equality match for your search, OpenDJ uses the caseIgnoreMatch matching rule to check for user ID attribute values that equal bjensen without regard to case. You can see the matching rules that OpenDJ supports by opening the OpenDJ Control Panel and browsing to Schema > Manage Schema > Matching Rules. Notice that many matching rules support string collation in languages other than English. You can also list matching rules by using the dsconfig command. As you can read in examples like, Search: List Active Accounts, OpenDJ matching rules enable directory clients to do more interesting searches than simply comparing strings. That example shows how to search for users who have authenticated in the last three months. OpenDJ exposes schema over protocol through the cn=schema entry. OpenDJ stores the schema definitions corresponding to the entry in LDIF under the config/schema/ directory. Many standard definitions and definitions pertaining to the server configuration are included at installation time. ## 17.2. Updating Directory Schema OpenDJ directory server is designed to permit updating the list of directory schema definitions while the server is running. As a result you can add support for new applications that require new attributes or new kinds of entries without interrupting the directory service. OpenDJ also replicates schema definitions, so the schema you add on one replica is propagated to other replicas without you having to intervene manually. As it is easy to introduce typos into schema definitions, the best way to start defining your own schema is with the OpenDJ Control Panel. Open the Control Panel > Schema > Manage Schema window to get started creating your custom object classes and attribute types. As object classes reference attribute types, you first create custom attribute types, and then create the object class that references the attribute types. Create a custom attribute type through the New Attribute window. Using the New Object Class window, create an auxiliary object class that allows your new custom attribute type. You set the type to Auxiliary under Extra Options. When you finish, the schema changes show up by default in the file config/schema/99-user.ldif. Notice that the file name starts with a number, 99. This number is larger than the numbers prefixing other schema file names. In fact, OpenDJ reads the schema files in sorted order, reading schema definitions as they occur. If OpenDJ reads a schema definition for an object class before it has read the definitions of the attribute types mentioned in the object class definition, then it displays an error. Therefore, when naming your schema file, make sure the name appears in the sorted list of file names after all the schema files containing definitions that your schema definitions depends on. The default file name for your schema, 99-user.ldif, ensures that your definitions load only after all of the schema files installed by default. You can create this file in the lab using the Control Panel, and then apply the definitions in production by adapting the content for use with the ldapmodify command, for example. $ cat config/schema/99-user.ldif
dn: cn=schema
objectClass: top
objectClass: ldapSubentry
objectClass: subschema
cn: schema
attributeTypes: ( temporary-fake-attr-id NAME 'myCustomAttribute' EQUALITY case
IgnoreMatch ORDERING caseIgnoreOrderingMatch SUBSTR caseIgnoreSubstrings
Match SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.15 USAGE userApplications )
objectClasses: ( temporary-fake-oc-id NAME 'myCustomObjClass
' SUP top AUXILIARY MAY myCustomAttribute )
modifiersName: cn=Directory Manager,cn=Root DNs,cn=config
modifyTimestamp: 20110620095948Z


To test your schema definition, add the object class and attribute to an entry.

$cat custom-attr.ldif dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com changetype: modify add: objectClass objectClass: myCustomObjClass - add: myCustomAttribute myCustomAttribute: Testing 1, 2, 3...$ ldapmodify
--port 1389
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--filename custom-attr.ldif
Processing MODIFY request for uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
MODIFY operation successful for DN uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
$ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com uid=bjensen myCustomAttribute dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com myCustomAttribute: Testing 1, 2, 3...  In addition to supporting the standard schema definitions that are described in RFC 4512, section 4.1, OpenDJ also supports the following extensions that you can use when adding your own definitions. Extensions for All Schema Definitions X-ORIGIN Used to specify the origin of a schema element. Examples include X-ORIGIN 'RFC 4519', X-ORIGIN 'draft-ietf-ldup-subentry', and X-ORIGIN 'OpenDJ Directory Server'. X-SCHEMA-FILE Used to specify the relative path to the schema file containing the schema element such as X-SCHEMA-FILE '00-core.ldif'. Schema definitions are located by default in /path/to/opendj/config/schema/*.ldif files. Extensions for Attribute Syntax Descriptions X-ENUM Used to define a syntax that is an enumeration of values. The following attribute syntax description defines a syntax allowing four possible attribute values for example. ldapSyntaxes: ( security-label-syntax-oid DESC 'Security Label' X-ENUM ( 'top-secret' 'secret' 'confidential' 'unclassified' ) ) X-PATTERN Used to define a syntax based on a regular expression pattern, where valid regular expressions are those defined for java.util.regex.Pattern. The following attribute syntax description defines a simple, lenient SIP phone URI syntax check. ldapSyntaxes: ( simple-sip-uri-syntax-oid DESC 'Lenient SIP URI Syntax' X-PATTERN '^sip:[a-zA-Z0-9.]+@[a-zA-Z0-9.]+(:[0-9]+)?$' )
X-SUBST

Used as a fallback to substitute a defined syntax for one that OpenDJ does not implement. The following example substitutes Directory String syntax, which has OID 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.15, for a syntax that OpenDJ does not implement.

ldapSyntaxes: ( non-implemented-syntax-oid DESC 'Not Implemented in OpenDJ'
X-SUBST '1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.15' )
Extension for Attribute Type Descriptions
X-APPROX

X-APPROX is used to specify the approximate matching rule to use for a given attribute type when not using the default, which is the double metaphone approximate match.

## 17.3. Relaxing Schema Checking to Import Legacy Data

By default, OpenDJ accepts data that follows the standards in terms of what is allowed and what is rejected. You might have legacy data from a directory service that is more lenient, allowing non-standard constructions such as multiple structural object classes per entry, not checking attribute value syntax, or even not respecting schema definitions.

For example, when importing data with multiple structural object classes defined per entry, you can relax schema checking to warn rather than reject entries having this issue.

$dsconfig set-global-configuration-prop --hostname opendj.example.com --port 4444 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --set single-structural-objectclass-behavior:warn --trustAll --no-prompt You can allow attribute values that do not respect the defined syntax with the dsconfig command as well. $ dsconfig
set-global-configuration-prop
--hostname opendj.example.com
--port 4444
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--set invalid-attribute-syntax-behavior:warn
--trustAll
--no-prompt

You can even turn off schema checking altogether, although turning off schema checking only really makes sense when you are absolutely sure that the entries and attribute values respect the schema definitions, and you simply want to turn off schema checking temporarily to speed up import processing.

$dsconfig set-global-configuration-prop --hostname opendj.example.com --port 4444 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --set check-schema:false --trustAll --no-prompt ## 17.4. Standard Schema Included With OpenDJ The following files under config/schema/ contain schema definitions out of the box. 00-core.ldif This file contains a core set of attribute type and objectlass definitions from several standard LDAP documents, including draft-ietf-boreham-numsubordinates, draft-findlay-ldap-groupofentries, draft-furuseth-ldap-untypedobject, draft-good-ldap-changelog, draft-ietf-ldup-subentry, draft-wahl-ldap-adminaddr, RFC 1274, RFC 2079, RFC 2256, RFC 2798, RFC 3045, RFC 3296, RFC 3671, RFC 3672, RFC 4512, RFC 4519, RFC 4523, RFC 4524, RFC 4530, RFC 5020, and X.501. 01-pwpolicy.ldif This file contains schema definitions from draft-behera-ldap-password-policy, which defines a mechanism for storing password policy information in an LDAP directory server. 02-config.ldif This file contains the attribute type and objectclass definitions for use with the directory server configuration. 03-changelog.ldif This file contains schema definitions from draft-good-ldap-changelog, which defines a mechanism for storing information about changes to directory server data. 03-rfc2713.ldif This file contains schema definitions from RFC 2713, which defines a mechanism for storing serialized Java objects in the directory server. 03-rfc2714.ldif This file contains schema definitions from RFC 2714, which defines a mechanism for storing CORBA objects in the directory server. 03-rfc2739.ldif This file contains schema definitions from RFC 2739, which defines a mechanism for storing calendar and vCard objects in the directory server. Note that the definition in RFC 2739 contains a number of errors, and this schema file has been altered from the standard definition in order to fix a number of those problems. 03-rfc2926.ldif This file contains schema definitions from RFC 2926, which defines a mechanism for mapping between Service Location Protocol (SLP) advertisements and LDAP. 03-rfc3112.ldif This file contains schema definitions from RFC 3112, which defines the authentication password schema. 03-rfc3712.ldif This file contains schema definitions from RFC 3712, which defines a mechanism for storing printer information in the directory server. 03-uddiv3.ldif This file contains schema definitions from RFC 4403, which defines a mechanism for storing UDDIv3 information in the directory server. 04-rfc2307bis.ldif This file contains schema definitions from the draft-howard-rfc2307bis specification, used to store naming service information in the directory server. 05-rfc4876.ldif This file contains schema definitions from RFC 4876, which defines a schema for storing Directory User Agent (DUA) profiles and preferences in the directory server. 05-samba.ldif This file contains schema definitions required when storing Samba user accounts in the directory server. 05-solaris.ldif This file contains schema definitions required for Solaris and OpenSolaris LDAP naming services. 06-compat.ldif This file contains the attribute type and objectclass definitions for use with the directory server configuration. ## Chapter 18. Working With Referrals Referrals point directory clients to another directory container, which can be another directory server running elsewhere, or another container on the same server. The client receiving a referral must then connect to the other container to complete the request. ### Note Some clients follow referrals on your behalf by default. The OpenDJ ldapsearch command does not follow referrals. Referrals are used for example when a some directory data are temporarily unavailable due to maintenance. Referrals can also be used when a container holds only some of the directory data for a suffix and points to other containers for branches whose data is not available locally. This chapter demonstrates how to add and remove referrals with the ldapmodify command. You can also use the Manage Entries window of the Control Panel to handle referrals. ## 18.1. About Referrals Referrals are implemented as entries with LDAP URL ref attribute values that point elsewhere. The ref attribute type is required by the referral object class. The referral object class is structural, however, and therefore cannot by default be added to an entry that already has a structural object class defined. When adding a ref attribute type to an existing entry, you can use the extensibleObject auxiliary object class. When a referral is set, OpenDJ returns the referral to client applications requesting the entry or child entries affected. Client applications must be capable of following the referral returned. When the directory server responds for example to your search with referrals to one or more LDAP URLs, your client then constructs new searches from the LDAP URLs returned, and tries again. ## 18.2. Managing Referrals To create an LDAP referral either you create a referral entry, or you add the extensibleObject object class and the ref attribute with an LDAP URL to an existing entry. This section demonstrates use of the latter approach. $ cat referral.ldif
dn: ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
changetype: modify
objectClass: extensibleObject
-
ref: ldap://opendj.example.com:2389/ou=People,dc=example,dc=com

$ldapmodify --port 1389 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --filename referral.ldif Processing MODIFY request for ou=People,dc=example,dc=com MODIFY operation successful for DN ou=People,dc=example,dc=com The example above adds a referral to ou=People,dc=example,dc=com. OpenDJ can now return a referral for operations under the People organizational unit. $ ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com uid=bjensen description

SearchReference(referralURLs=
{ldap://opendj.example.com:2389/ou=People,dc=example,dc=com??sub?})

$ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com ou=people SearchReference(referralURLs= {ldap://opendj.example.com:2389/ou=People,dc=example,dc=com??sub?}) To access the entry instead of the referral, use the Manage DSAIT control. $ ldapsearch
--port 1389
--baseDN dc=example,dc=com
--control ManageDSAIT:true
ou=people
ref
dn: ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
ref: ldap://opendj.example.com:2389/ou=People,dc=example,dc=com

$cat people.ldif dn: ou=People,dc=example,dc=com changetype: modify delete: ref ref: ldap://opendj.example.com:2389/ou=People,dc=example,dc=com$ ldapmodify
--port 1389
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--filename people.ldif
Processing MODIFY request for ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
MODIFY operation successful for DN ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
A referral entry ou=People,dc=example,dc=com indicates that the operation must
be processed at a different server
[ldap://opendj.example.com:2389/ou=People,dc=example,dc=com]
$ldapmodify --port 1389 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --control ManageDSAIT --filename people.ldif Processing MODIFY request for ou=People,dc=example,dc=com MODIFY operation successful for DN ou=People,dc=example,dc=com$ ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com ou=people
dn: ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
ou: People
objectClass: organizationalunit
objectClass: extensibleObject
objectClass: top

The example above shows how to remove the referral using the Manage DSAIT control with the ldapmodify command.

## Chapter 19. Working With Virtual and Collective Attributes

OpenDJ supports virtual attributes with dynamically generated values. Virtual attributes are used by the server. You can also define your own. OpenDJ also supports standard collective attributes as described in RFC 3671, allowing entries to share common, read-only attribute values.

This chapter demonstrates how to define virtual and collective attributes, showing common solutions as examples of their use.

## 19.1. Virtual Attributes

OpenDJ defines a number of virtual attributes by default.

entryDN

The value is the DN of the entry.

entryUUID

Provides a universally unique identifier for the entry.

etag

Entity tag as defined in RFC 2616, useful for checking whether an entry has changed since you last read it from the directory.

hasSubordinates

Boolean. Whether the entry has children.

numSubordinates

Provides the number of direct child entries.

isMemberOf

Identifies groups the entry belongs to.

By default OpenDJ generates isMemberOf on user entries (entries that have the object class person), and on group entries (entries that have the object class groupOfNames, groupOfUniqueNames, or groupOfEntries). You can change this by editing the filter property of the isMemberOf virtual attribute configuration.

member

Generated for virtual static groups.

uniqueMember

Generated for virtual static groups.

pwdPolicySubentry

Identifies the password policy that applies to the entry.

By default OpenDJ assigns root DN users the password policy with DN cn=Root Password Policy,cn=Password Policies,cn=config and regular users the password policy with DN cn=Default Password Policy,cn=Password Policies,cn=config. See Configuring Password Policy for information on configuring and assigning password policies.

subschemaSubentry

References the schema definitions.

collectiveAttributeSubentries

References applicable collective attribute definitions.

governingStructureRule

References the rule on what type of subordinates the entry can have.

structuralObjectClass

References the structural object class for the entry.

These virtual attributes are typically operational, so you get them back from a search only when you request them.

$ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com dc=example dn: dc=example,dc=com dc: example objectClass: domain objectClass: top$ ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com dc=example numSubordinates
dn: dc=example,dc=com
numSubordinates: 4


You can use the existing virtual attribute types to create your own virtual attributes, and you can also use the user-defined type to create your own. The virtual attribute is defined by the server configuration, which is not replicated.

$dsconfig create-virtual-attribute --hostname opendj.example.com --port 4444 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --name "Served By Description" --type user-defined --set enabled:true --set attribute-type:description --set base-dn:dc=example,dc=com --set value:"Served by OpenDJ.Example.com" --trustAll --no-prompt$ ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com uid=bjensen description
dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
description: Served by OpenDJ.Example.com


Collective attributes cover many use cases better than virtual attributes.

## 19.2. Collective Attributes

Collective attributes provide a standard mechanism for defining attributes that appear on all the entries in a subtree potentially filtered by object class. Standard collective attribute type names have the prefix c-.

OpenDJ extends collective attributes to make them easier to use. You can define any OpenDJ attribute as collective using the ;collective attribute option. You can use LDAP filters in your subtree specification for fine-grained control over which entries have the collective attributes.

You can have entries inherit attributes from other entries using collective attributes. You establish the relationship between entries either by specifying another attribute of the entry that specifies the DN of the entry from which to inherit the attributes, or by specifying how to construct the RDN of the entry from which to inherit the attributes.

To Add Privileges For a Group of Administrators demonstrates setting administrative privileges in OpenDJ using collective attributes. The following examples demonstrate additional ways to use collective attributes in OpenDJ.

Example 19.1. Class of Service With Collective Attributes

This example defines attributes that specify services available to a user depending on that user's service level.

### Note

The following example depends on the cos object class, and the classOfService attribute type defined but commented out in the Example.ldif file imported as sample data. To try this example for yourself, add the attribute type and object class definitions in comments near the top of the file, and then uncomment the objectClass: cos and classOfService attribute lines in Example.ldif before importing the data into OpenDJ.

This example positions collective attributes that depend on the classOfService attribute values.

• For entries with classOfService: bronze, mailQuota is set to 1 GB, and diskQuota is set to 10 GB.

• For entries with classOfService: silver, mailQuota is set to 5 GB, and diskQuota is set to 50 GB.

• For entries with classOfService: gold, mailQuota is set to 10 GB, and diskQuota is set to 100 GB.

You define collective attributes in the user data using a subentry. In other words, collective attributes can be replicated. Collective attributes use attributes defined in the directory schema. First, add the mailQuote and diskQuota attributes, and adjust the definition of the cos object class to allow the two quota attributes.

$cat quotas.ldif dn: cn=schema changetype: modify add: attributeTypes attributeTypes: ( example-class-of-service-attribute-type NAME 'classOfService ' EQUALITY caseIgnoreMatch ORDERING caseIgnoreOrderingMatch SUBSTR caseIgnore SubstringsMatch SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.15 SINGLE-VALUE USAGE user Applications X-ORIGIN 'OpenDJ Documentation Examples' ) - add: attributeTypes attributeTypes: ( example-class-of-service-disk-quota NAME 'diskQuota ' EQUALITY caseIgnoreMatch ORDERING caseIgnoreOrderingMatch SUBSTR case IgnoreSubstringsMatch SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.15 USAGE user Applications X-ORIGIN 'OpenDJ Documentation Examples' ) - add: attributeTypes attributeTypes: ( example-class-of-service-mail-quota NAME 'mailQuota ' EQUALITY caseIgnoreMatch ORDERING caseIgnoreOrderingMatch SUBSTR case IgnoreSubstringsMatch SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.15 USAGE user Applications X-ORIGIN 'OpenDJ Documentation Examples' ) - add: objectClasses objectClasses: ( example-class-of-service-object-class NAME 'cos' SUP top AUX ILIARY MAY ( classOfService$ diskQuota $mailQuota ) X-ORIGIN 'OpenDJ Doc umentation Examples' )$ ldapmodify
--port 1389
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--filename quotas.ldif
Processing MODIFY request for cn=schema
MODIFY operation successful for DN cn=schema

Use the following collective attribute definitions to set the quotas depending on class of service.

# cos.ldif: quotas by class of service
dn: cn=Bronze Class of Service,dc=example,dc=com
objectClass: collectiveAttributeSubentry
objectClass: extensibleObject
objectClass: subentry
objectClass: top
cn: Bronze Class of Service
diskQuota;collective: 10 GB
mailQuota;collective: 1 GB
subtreeSpecification: { base "ou=People", specificationFilter "(classOfService=
bronze)" }

dn: cn=Silver Class of Service,dc=example,dc=com
objectClass: collectiveAttributeSubentry
objectClass: extensibleObject
objectClass: subentry
objectClass: top
cn: Silver Class of Service
diskQuota;collective: 50 GB
mailQuota;collective: 5 GB
subtreeSpecification: { base "ou=People", specificationFilter "(classOfService=
silver)" }

dn: cn=Gold Class of Service,dc=example,dc=com
objectClass: collectiveAttributeSubentry
objectClass: extensibleObject
objectClass: subentry
objectClass: top
cn: Gold Class of Service
diskQuota;collective: 100 GB
mailQuota;collective: 10 GB
subtreeSpecification: { base "ou=People", specificationFilter "(classOfService=
gold)" }


You can add the collective attribute subentries by using the ldapmodify command.

$ldapmodify --port 1389 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --defaultAdd --filename cos.ldif Processing ADD request for cn=Bronze Class of Service,dc=example,dc=com ADD operation successful for DN cn=Bronze Class of Service,dc=example,dc=com Processing ADD request for cn=Silver Class of Service,dc=example,dc=com ADD operation successful for DN cn=Silver Class of Service,dc=example,dc=com Processing ADD request for cn=Gold Class of Service,dc=example,dc=com ADD operation successful for DN cn=Gold Class of Service,dc=example,dc=com With the collective attributes defined, you can see the results on user entries. $ ldapsearch
--port 1389
--baseDN dc=example,dc=com
uid=bjensen
classOfService mailQuota diskQuota
dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
mailQuota: 1 GB
classOfService: bronze
diskQuota: 10 GB

$ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com uid=kvaughan classOfService mailQuota diskQuota dn: uid=kvaughan,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com mailQuota: 5 GB classOfService: silver diskQuota: 50 GB$ ldapsearch
--port 1389
--baseDN dc=example,dc=com
uid=scarter
classOfService mailQuota diskQuota
dn: uid=scarter,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
mailQuota: 10 GB
classOfService: gold
diskQuota: 100 GB

Example 19.2. Inheriting an Attribute From the Manager's Entry

This example demonstrates how to have OpenDJ set an employee's department number using the manager's department number. To try the example, first import Example.ldif into OpenDJ in order to load the appropriate sample data.

For this example the relationship between employee entries and manager entries is based on the manager attributes on employee entries. Each manager attribute on an employee's entry specifies the DN of the manager's entry. OpenDJ retrieves the department number from the manager's entry to populate the attribute on the employee's entry.

The collective attribute subentry that specifies the relationship looks like this:

dn: cn=Inherit Department Number From Manager,dc=example,dc=com
objectClass: top
objectClass: subentry
objectClass: inheritedCollectiveAttributeSubentry
objectClass: inheritedFromDNCollectiveAttributeSubentry
cn: Inherit Department Number From Manager
subtreeSpecification: { base "ou=People" }
inheritFromDNAttribute: manager
inheritAttribute: departmentNumber



This entry specifies that users inherit department number from their manager.

As seen in Example.ldif, Babs Jensen's manager is Torrey Rigden.

dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
manager: uid=trigden, ou=People, dc=example,dc=com

Torrey's department number is 3001.

dn: uid=trigden,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
departmentNumber: 3001

Babs inherits her department number from Torrey.

$ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com uid=bjensen departmentNumber dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com departmentNumber: 3001 Example 19.3. Inheriting Attributes From the Locality This example demonstrates how to have OpenDJ set a user's language preferences and street address based on locality. To try the example, first import Example.ldif into OpenDJ in order to load the appropriate sample data. For this example the relationship between entries is based on locality. The collective attribute subentry specifies how to construct the RDN of the object holding the attribute values to inherit. dn: cn=Inherit From Locality,dc=example,dc=com objectClass: top objectClass: subentry objectClass: inheritedCollectiveAttributeSubentry objectClass: inheritedFromRDNCollectiveAttributeSubentry cn: Inherit From Locality subtreeSpecification: { base "ou=People" } inheritFromBaseRDN: ou=Locations inheritFromRDNAttribute: l inheritFromRDNType: l inheritAttribute: preferredLanguage inheritAttribute: street collectiveConflictBehavior: real-overrides-virtual  This specifies that the RDN of the entry from which to inherit attributes is like l=localityName,ou=Locations, where localityName is the value of the l (localityName) attribute on the user's entry. In other words, if the user's entry has l: Bristol, then the RDN of the entry from which to inherit attributes starts with l=Bristol,ou=Locations. The actual entry looks like this: dn: l=Bristol,ou=Locations,dc=example,dc=com objectClass: top objectClass: locality objectClass: extensibleObject l: Bristol street: 60 Queen Square preferredLanguage: en-gb  The subentry also specifies two attributes to inherit for preferred language and street address. The object class extensibleObject is added to allow the entry to take a preferred language.[17] Notice the last line of the collective attribute subentry: collectiveConflictBehavior: real-overrides-virtual This line says that if a collective attribute clashes with a real attribute, the real value takes precedence over the virtual, collective value. You can also set collectiveConflictBehavior to virtual-overrides-real for the opposite precedence, or to merge-real-and-virtual to keep both sets of values. Here, users can set their own language preferences. When users set language preferences manually, the collective attribute subentry is configured to give the user's settings precedence over the locality-based setting, which is only a default guess. Sam Carter is located in Bristol. Sam has specified no preferred languages. dn: uid=scarter,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com l: Bristol Sam inherits both the street address and also preferred language from the Bristol locality. $ ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com uid=scarter
preferredLanguage street
dn: uid=scarter,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
preferredLanguage: en-gb
street: 60 Queen Square

Babs's locality is San Francisco. Babs prefers English, but also knows Korean.

dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
preferredLanguage: en, ko;q=0.8
l: San Francisco

Babs inherits the street address from the San Francisco locality, but keeps her language preferences.

$ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com uid=bjensen preferredLanguage street dn: uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com preferredLanguage: en, ko;q=0.8 street: 500 3rd Street [17] The object class extensibleObject means, "Let me add whatever attributes I want." It is usually better practice to add your own auxiliary object class if you need to decorate an entry with more attributes. The shortcut is taken here as the focus of this example is not schema extension, but instead how to use collective attributes. ## Chapter 20. Configuring Pass Through Authentication This chapter focuses on pass through authentication (PTA), whereby you configure another server to determine the response to an authentication request. A typical use case for pass through authentication involves passing authentication through to Active Directory for users coming from Microsoft Windows systems. ## 20.1. About Pass Through Authentication You use LDAP pass through authentication when the credentials for authenticating are stored not in OpenDJ, but instead in a remote directory service. In effect OpenDJ redirects the bind operation against a remote LDAP server. Exactly how OpenDJ redirects the bind depends on how the user entry in OpenDJ maps to the corresponding user entry in the remote directory. OpenDJ provides you several choices to set up the mapping. • When both the local entry in OpenDJ and the remote entry in the other server have the same DN, you do not have to set up the mapping at all. By default, OpenDJ redirects the bind with the original DN and password from the client application. • When the local entry in OpenDJ has been provisioned with an attribute holding the DN of the remote entry, you can specify which attribute holds the DN, and OpenDJ redirects the bind on the remote server using the DN value. • When you cannot get the remote bind DN directly, you need an attribute and value on the OpenDJ entry that corresponds to an identical attribute and value on the remote server in order to map the local entry to the remote entry. In this case you also need the bind credentials for a user who can search for the entry on the remote server. OpenDJ performs a search for the entry using the matching attribute and value, and then redirects the bind with the DN from the remote entry. You configure pass through authentication as an authentication policy that you associate with a user's entry in the same way that you associate a password policy with a user's entry. Either a user has an authentication policy for pass through authentication, or the user has a local password policy. ## 20.2. Setting Up Pass Through Authentication When setting up pass through authentication, you need to know to which remote server or servers to redirect binds, and you need to know how you map user entries in OpenDJ to user entries in the remote directory. Procedure 20.1. To Set Up SSL Communication For Testing When performing pass through authentication, you no doubt protect communications between OpenDJ and the server providing authentication. If you test using SSL with self-signed certificates, and you do not want the client blindly to trust the server, follow these steps to import the authentication server's certificate into the OpenDJ key store. 1. Export the server certificate from the authentication server. How you perform this step depends on the authentication directory server. With OpenDJ, you can export the certificate as shown here. $ cd /path/to/PTA-Server/config
$keytool -exportcert -rfc -alias server-cert -keystore keystore -storepass cat keystore.pin > /tmp/pta-srv-cert.pem 2. Make note of the host name used in the certificate. You use the host name when configuring the SSL connection. With OpenDJ, you can view the certificate details as shown here. $ keytool
-list
-v
-alias server-cert
-keystore keystore
-storepass cat keystore.pin
Alias name: server-cert
Creation date: Sep 12, 2011
Entry type: PrivateKeyEntry
Certificate chain length: 1
Certificate[1]:
Owner: CN=pta-server.example.com, O=OpenDJ Self-Signed Certificate
Issuer: CN=pta-server.example.com, O=OpenDJ Self-Signed Certificate
Serial number: 4e6dc429
Valid from: Mon Sep 12 10:34:49 CEST 2011 until: Wed Sep 11 10:34:49 CEST 2013
Certificate fingerprints:
MD5:  B6:EE:1C:A0:71:12:EF:6F:21:24:B9:50:EF:8B:4E:6A
SHA1: 7E:A1:C9:07:D2:86:56:31:24:14:F7:07:A8:6B:3E:A1:39:63:F4:0E
Signature algorithm name: SHA1withRSA
Version: 3
3. Import the authentication server certificate into OpenDJ's key store.

$cd /path/to/opendj/config$ keytool
-importcert
-alias pta-cert
-keystore truststore
-storepass cat keystore.pin
-file /tmp/pta-srv-cert.pem
Owner: CN=pta-server.example.com, O=OpenDJ Self-Signed Certificate
Issuer: CN=pta-server.example.com, O=OpenDJ Self-Signed Certificate
Serial number: 4e6dc429
Valid from: Mon Sep 12 10:34:49 CEST 2011 until: Wed Sep 11 10:34:49 CEST 2013
Certificate fingerprints:
MD5:  B6:EE:1C:A0:71:12:EF:6F:21:24:B9:50:EF:8B:4E:6A
SHA1: 7E:A1:C9:07:D2:86:56:31:24:14:F7:07:A8:6B:3E:A1:39:63:F4:0E
Signature algorithm name: SHA1withRSA
Version: 3
Trust this certificate? [no]:  yes
Certificate was added to keystore
Procedure 20.2. To Configure an LDAP Pass Through Authentication Policy

You configure authentication policies with the dsconfig command. Notice that authentication policies are part of the server configuration, and therefore not replicated.

1. Set up an authentication policy for pass through authentication to the authentication server.

$dsconfig create-password-policy --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --type ldap-pass-through --policy-name "PTA Policy" --set primary-remote-ldap-server:pta-server.example.com:636 --set mapped-attribute:uid --set mapped-search-base-dn:"dc=PTA Server,dc=com" --set mapping-policy:mapped-search --set use-ssl:true --set trust-manager-provider:JKS --trustAll --no-prompt The policy shown here maps identities having this password policy to identities under dc=PTA Server,dc=com. Users must have the same uid values on both servers. The policy here also uses SSL between OpenDJ and the authentication server. 2. Check that your policy has been added to the list. $ dsconfig
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--property use-ssl

Password Policy         : Type              : use-ssl
------------------------:-------------------:--------
PTA Policy              : ldap-pass-through : true
Root Password Policy    : password-policy   : -
Procedure 20.3. To Configure Pass Through Authentication To Active Directory

The steps below demonstrate setting up pass through authentication to Active Directory. Here is some background to help you make sense of the steps.

Entries on the OpenDJ side use uid as the naming attribute, and entries also have cn attributes. Active Directory entries use cn as the naming attribute. User entries on both sides share the same cn values. The mapping between entries therefore uses cn.

Consider the example where an OpenDJ account with cn=LDAP PTA User and DN uid=ldapptauser,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com corresponds to an Active Directory account with DN CN=LDAP PTA User,CN=Users,DC=internal,DC=forgerock,DC=com. The steps below enable the user with cn=LDAP PTA User on OpenDJ authenticate through to Active Directory.

$ldapsearch --hostname opendj.example.com --baseDN dc=example,dc=com uid=ldapptauser cn dn: uid=ldapptauser,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com cn: LDAP PTA User$ ldapsearch
--baseDN "CN=Users,DC=internal,DC=forgerock,DC=com"
"(cn=LDAP PTA User)"
cn
dn: CN=LDAP PTA User,CN=Users,DC=internal,DC=forgerock,DC=com
cn: LDAP PTA User

OpenDJ must map its uid=ldapptauser,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com entry to the Active Directory entry, CN=LDAP PTA User,CN=Users,DC=internal,DC=forgerock,DC=com. In order to do the mapping, OpenDJ has to perform a search for the user in Active Directory using the cn value it recovers from its own entry for the user. Active Directory does not allow anonymous searches, so part of the authentication policy configuration consists of the administrator DN and password OpenDJ uses to bind to Active Directory to be able to search.

Finally, before setting up the pass through authentication policy, make sure OpenDJ can connect to Active Directory over a secure connection to avoid sending passwords in the clear.

1. Export the certificate from the Windows server.

1. Click start > All Programs > Administrative Tools > Certification Authority, then right-click the CA and select Properties.

2. In the General tab, select the certificate and click View Certificate.

3. In the Certificate dialog, click the Details tab, then click Copy to File...

4. Use the Certificate Export Wizard to export the certificate into a file, such as windows.cer.

2. Copy the exported certificate to the system running OpenDJ.

3. Import the server certificate into OpenDJ's key store.

$cd /path/to/opendj/config$ keytool
-importcert
-keystore truststore
-storepass cat keystore.pin
Owner: CN=internal-ACTIVEDIRECTORY-CA, DC=internal, DC=forgerock, DC=com
Issuer: CN=internal-ACTIVEDIRECTORY-CA, DC=internal, DC=forgerock, DC=com
Serial number: 587465257200a7b14a6976cb47916b32
Valid from: Tue Sep 20 11:14:24 CEST 2011 until: Tue Sep 20 11:24:23 CEST 2016
Certificate fingerprints:
MD5:  A3:D6:F1:8D:0D:F9:9C:76:00:BC:84:8A:14:55:28:38
SHA1: 0F:BD:45:E6:21:DF:BD:6A:CA:8A:7C:1D:F9:DA:A1:8E:8A:0D:A4:BF
Signature algorithm name: SHA1withRSA
Version: 3

Extensions:

#1: ObjectId: 2.5.29.19 Criticality=true
BasicConstraints:[
CA:true
PathLen:2147483647
]

#2: ObjectId: 2.5.29.15 Criticality=false
KeyUsage [
DigitalSignature
Key_CertSign
Crl_Sign
]

#3: ObjectId: 2.5.29.14 Criticality=false
SubjectKeyIdentifier [
KeyIdentifier [
0000: A3 3E C0 E3 B2 76 15 DC   97 D0 B3 C0 2E 77 8A 11  .>...v.......w..
0010: 24 62 70 0A                                        $bp. ] ] #4: ObjectId: 1.3.6.1.4.1.311.21.1 Criticality=false Trust this certificate? [no]: yes Certificate was added to keystore At this point OpenDJ can connect to Active Directory over SSL. 4. Set up an authentication policy for OpenDJ users to authenticate to Active Directory. $ dsconfig
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--type ldap-pass-through
--set mapped-attribute:cn
--set mapped-search-base-dn:"CN=Users,DC=internal,DC=forgerock,DC=com"
,DC=com"
--set mapping-policy:mapped-search
--set trust-manager-provider:JKS
--set use-ssl:true
--trustAll --no-prompt
5. Assign the authentication policy to a test user.

$ldapmodify --port 1389 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password dn: uid=ldapptauser,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com changetype: modify add: ds-pwp-password-policy-dn ds-pwp-password-policy-dn: cn=AD PTA Policy,cn=Password Policies,cn=config Processing MODIFY request for uid=ldapptauser,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com MODIFY operation successful for DN uid=ldapptauser,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com 6. Check that the user can bind using pass through authentication to Active Directory. $ ldapsearch
--hostname opendj.example.com
--port 1389
--baseDN dc=example,dc=com
--bindDN uid=ldapptauser,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
"(cn=LDAP PTA User)"
dn: uid=ldapptauser,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
cn: LDAP PTA User

Notice that to complete the search, the user authenticated with a password to Active Directory, though no userpassword value is present on the entry on the OpenDJ side.

## 20.3. Assigning Pass Through Authentication Policies

You assign authentication policies in the same way as you assign password policies, by using the ds-pwp-password-policy-dn attribute.

### Note

Although you assign the pass through authentication policy using the same attribute as for password policy, the authentication policy is not in fact a password policy. Therefore, the user with a pass through authentication policy does not have a value for the operational attribute pwdPolicySubentry.

$ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com uid=user.0 pwdPolicySubentry dn: uid=user.0,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com  Procedure 20.4. To Assign a Pass Through Authentication Policy To a User Users depending on pass through authentication no longer need a local password policy, as they no longer authenticate locally. Examples in the following procedure work for this user, whose entry on OpenDJ is as shown. Notice that the user has no password set. The user's password on the authentication server is password. dn: uid=user.0,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com cn: Aaccf Amar description: This is the description for Aaccf Amar. employeeNumber: 0 givenName: Aaccf homePhone: +1 225 216 5900 initials: ASA l: Panama City mail: user.0@maildomain.net mobile: +1 010 154 3228 objectClass: person objectClass: inetorgperson objectClass: organizationalperson objectClass: top pager: +1 779 041 6341 postalAddress: Aaccf Amar$01251 Chestnut Street$Panama City, DE 50369 postalCode: 50369 sn: Amar st: DE street: 01251 Chestnut Street telephoneNumber: +1 685 622 6202 uid: user.0  This user's entry on the authentication server also has uid=user.0, and the pass through authentication policy performs the mapping to find the user entry in the authentication server. 1. Prevent users from changing their own password policies. $ cat protect-pta.ldif
dn: ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
changetype: modify
aci: (target ="ldap:///uid=*,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com")(targetattr =
"ds-pwp-password-policy-dn")(version 3.0;acl "Cannot choose own pass
word policy";deny (write)(userdn = "ldap:///self");)

$ldapmodify --port 1389 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --filename protect-pta.ldif Processing MODIFY request for ou=People,dc=example,dc=com MODIFY operation successful for DN ou=People,dc=example,dc=com 2. Update the user's ds-pwp-password-policy-dn attribute. $ ldapmodify
--port 1389
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
dn: uid=user.0,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
changetype: modify

Processing MODIFY request for uid=user.0,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
MODIFY operation successful for DN uid=user.0,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
3. Check that the user can authenticate through to the authentication server.

$ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com --bindDN uid=user.0,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com --bindPassword password uid=user.0 cn sn dn: uid=user.0,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com cn: Aaccf Amar sn: Amar  Procedure 20.5. To Assign a Pass Through Authentication Policy To a Group Examples in the following steps use the pass through authentication policy as defined above. Kirsten Vaughan's entry has been reproduced on the authentication server under dc=PTA Server,dc=com. 1. Create a subentry to assign a collective attribute that sets the ds-pwp-password-policy-dn attribute for group members' entries. $ cat pta-coll.ldif
dn: cn=PTA Policy for Dir Admins,dc=example,dc=com
objectClass: collectiveAttributeSubentry
objectClass: extensibleObject
objectClass: subentry
objectClass: top
cn: PTA Policy for Dir Admins
cn=config
subtreeSpecification: { base "ou=People", specificationFilter "(isMemberOf=

$ldapmodify --port 1389 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --defaultAdd --filename pta-coll.ldif Processing ADD request for cn=PTA Policy for Dir Admins,dc=example,dc=com ADD operation successful for DN cn=PTA Policy for Dir Admins,dc=example,dc=com 2. Check that OpenDJ has applied the policy. 1. Make sure you can bind as the user on the authentication server. $ ldapsearch
--port 2389
--bindDN "uid=kvaughan,ou=People,dc=PTA Server,dc=com"
--baseDN "dc=PTA Server,dc=com"
uid=kvaughan
dn: uid=kvaughan,ou=People,dc=PTA Server,dc=com
objectClass: person
objectClass: organizationalPerson
objectClass: inetOrgPerson
objectClass: top
givenName: Kirsten
uid: kvaughan
cn: Kirsten Vaughan
sn: Vaughan
ou: People
mail: jvaughan@example.com

2. Check that the user can authenticate through to the authentication server from OpenDJ.

$ldapsearch --port 1389 --bindDN "uid=kvaughan,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com" --bindPassword password --baseDN dc=example,dc=com uid=kvaughan cn sn dn: uid=kvaughan,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com cn: Kirsten Vaughan sn: Vaughan ## Chapter 21. Samba Password Synchronization Samba, the Windows interoperability suite for Linux and UNIX, stores accounts because UNIX and Windows password storage management is not interoperable. The default account storage mechanism is designed to work well with relatively small numbers of accounts and configurations with one domain controller. For larger installations, you can configure Samba to use OpenDJ for storing Samba accounts. See the Samba documentation for your platform for instructions on how to configure an LDAP directory server such as OpenDJ as a Samba passdb backend. The rest of this chapter focuses on how you keep passwords in sync when using OpenDJ for Samba account storage. When you store Samba accounts in OpenDJ, Samba stores its own attributes as defined in the Samba schema. Samba does not use the LDAP standard userPassword attribute to store users' Samba passwords. You can configure Samba to apply changes to Samba passwords to LDAP passwords as well, too. Yet, if a user modifies her LDAP password directly without updating the Samba password, the LDAP and Samba passwords get out of sync. The OpenDJ Samba Password plugin resolves this problem for you. The plugin intercepts password changes to Samba user profiles, synchronizing Samba password and LDAP password values. For an incoming Password Modify Extended Request or modify request changing the user password, the OpenDJ Samba Password plugin detects whether the user's entry reflects a Samba user profile (entry has object class sambaSAMAccount), hashes the incoming password value, and applies the password change to the appropriate password attribute, keeping the password values in sync. The OpenDJ Samba Password plugin can perform synchronization as long as new passwords values are provided in clear text in the modification request. If you configure Samba to synchronize LDAP passwords when it changes Samba passwords, then the plugin can ignore changes by the Samba user to avoid duplicate synchronization. Procedure 21.1. To Set Up a Samba Administrator Account The Samba Administrator synchronizes LDAP passwords after changing Samba passwords by issuing a Password Modify Extended Request. In Samba's smb.conf configuration file, the value of ldap admin dn is set to the DN of this account. When the Samba Administrator changes a user password, the plugin ignores the changes, so choose a distinct account different from Directory Manager and other administrators. 1. Create or choose an account for the Samba Administrator. $ cat samba.ldif
givenName: Samba
mail: samba@example.com
objectClass: person
objectClass: inetOrgPerson
objectClass: organizationalPerson
objectClass: top

$ldapmodify --port 1389 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --defaultAdd --filename samba.ldif Processing ADD request for uid=samba-admin,ou=Special Users,dc=example,dc=com ADD operation successful for DN uid=samba-admin,ou=Special Users, dc=example,dc=com 2. Ensure the Samba Administrator can reset user passwords. $ cat samba-rights.ldif
changetype: modify

dn: dc=example,dc=com
changetype: modify
aci: (target="ldap:///dc=example,dc=com") (targetattr ="*")(version 3.0; acl "
Samba Admin user rights"; allow(all) groupdn ="ldap:///uid=samba-user,ou=
Special Users,dc=example,dc=com";)

$ldapmodify --port 1389 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --filename samba-rights.ldif Processing MODIFY request for uid=samba-admin,ou=Special Users,dc=example,dc=com MODIFY operation successful for DN uid=samba-admin,ou=Special Users,dc=example,dc=com Processing MODIFY request for dc=example,dc=com MODIFY operation successful for DN dc=example,dc=com Procedure 21.2. To Set Up the Samba Password Plugin 1. Determine whether the plugin must store passwords hashed like LanManager (sync-lm-password) or like Windows NT (sync-nt-password), based on how you set up Samba in your environment. 2. Enable the plugin. $ dsconfig
create-plugin
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--set enabled:true
--set
--trustAll
--no-prompt

At this point the Samba Password plugin is active.

3. When troubleshooting Samba Password plugin issues, you can turn on debug logging as follows.

$dsconfig create-debug-target --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --publisher-name "File-Based Debug Logger" --target-name org.opends.server.plugins.SambaPasswordPlugin --set debug-level:all --trustAll --no-prompt$ dsconfig
set-log-publisher-prop
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--publisher-name "File-Based Debug Logger"
--set enabled:true
--trustAll
--no-prompt

## Chapter 22. Monitoring, Logging, & Alerts

This chapter describes the monitoring capabilities that OpenDJ implements, and shows how to configure them.

OpenDJ Control Panel provides basic monitoring capabilities under Monitoring > General Information, Monitoring > Connection Handler, and Monitoring > Manage Tasks. This chapter covers the other options for monitoring OpenDJ.

## 22.1. LDAP-Based Monitoring

OpenDJ exposes monitoring information over LDAP under the entry cn=monitor. Many different types of information are exposed. The following example shows monitoring information about the userRoot backend holding Example.com data.

Interface stability: Evolving

$ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN cn=monitor "(cn=userRoot backend)" dn: cn=userRoot backend,cn=Disk Space Monitor,cn=monitor disk-state: normal objectClass: top objectClass: ds-monitor-entry objectClass: extensibleObject disk-dir: /path/to/opendj/db/userRoot disk-free: 343039315968 cn: userRoot backend dn: cn=userRoot Backend,cn=monitor objectClass: top objectClass: ds-monitor-entry objectClass: ds-backend-monitor-entry ds-backend-is-private: FALSE ds-backend-writability-mode: enabled cn: userRoot Backend ds-backend-entry-count: 163 ds-backend-id: userRoot ds-base-dn-entry-count: 163 dc=example,dc=com ds-backend-base-dn: dc=example,dc=com  You can set global ACIs on the Access Control Handler if you want to limit read access under cn=monitor. ## 22.2. SNMP-Based Monitoring OpenDJ lets you monitor the server over the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), with support for the Management Information Base described in RFC 2605: Directory Server Monitoring MIB. OpenDJ SNMP-based monitoring depends on OpenDMK, which you must download separately. Install the Full Binary Bundle by using the graphical installer, which requires that you accept the Binary License for Project OpenDMK. OpenDJ directory server that you download from ForgeRock is built with OpenDMK, but due to licensing OpenDMK is not part of OpenDJ. SNMP is therefore not enabled by default. To run the OpenDMK installer, use the self-extracting .jar. $ java -jar ~/Downloads/opendmk-1.0-b02-*.jar

If you install under /path/to, then the runtime library needed for SNMP is /path/to/OpenDMK-bin/lib/jdmkrt.jar.

Once you have installed OpenDMK, you can set up a connection handler for SNMP by enabling the connection handler, and pointing OpenDJ to your installation of the OpenDMK jdmkrt.jar library.

$dsconfig set-connection-handler-prop --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --handler-name "SNMP Connection Handler" --set enabled:true --set opendmk-jarfile:/path/to/OpenDMK-bin/lib/jdmkrt.jar --trustAll --no-prompt By default, the SNMP Connection Handler listens on port 161 and uses port 162 for traps. On UNIX and Linux systems, only root can normally open these ports. Therefore if you install as a normal user, you might want to change the listen and trap ports. $ dsconfig
set-connection-handler-prop
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--handler-name "SNMP Connection Handler"
--set listen-port:11161
--set trap-port:11162
--trustAll
--no-prompt

Restart the SNMP Connection Handler to take the port number changes into account.

To restart the connection handler, you disable it, then enable it again.

$dsconfig set-connection-handler-prop --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --handler-name "SNMP Connection Handler" --set enabled:false --trustAll --no-prompt$ dsconfig
set-connection-handler-prop
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--handler-name "SNMP Connection Handler"
--set enabled:true
--trustAll
--no-prompt

Use a command such as snmpwalk to check that the SNMP listen port works.

$snmpwalk -v 2c -c OpenDJ@OpenDJ localhost:11161 SNMPv2-SMI::mib-2.66.1.1.1.1 = STRING: "OpenDJ 2.7.0-SNAPSHOT..." SNMPv2-SMI::mib-2.66.1.1.2.1 = STRING: "/path/to/opendj" ... ## 22.3. JMX-Based Monitoring OpenDJ provides Java Management eXtensions (JMX) based monitoring. A number of tools support JMX, including jconsole and jvisualvm, which are bundled with the Sun/Oracle Java platform. JMX is not configured by default. Use the dsconfig command to configure the JMX connection handler. Interface stability: Evolving $ dsconfig
set-connection-handler-prop
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--handler-name "JMX Connection Handler"
--set enabled:true
--trustAll
--no-prompt

By default, no users have privileges to access the JMX connection. The following command adds JMX privileges for Directory Manager.

$dsconfig set-root-dn-prop --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --add default-root-privilege-name:jmx-notify --add default-root-privilege-name:jmx-read --add default-root-privilege-name:jmx-write --trustAll --no-prompt You must also configure security to login remotely. See the section on Using SSL in Monitoring and Management Using JMX for hints. Alternatively, you can connect to a local server process by using the server process identifier. $ cat ../logs/server.pid
3363
$jvisualvm --openpid 3363 & ## 22.4. Server Operation & Tasks OpenDJ comes with two commands for monitoring server processes and tasks. The status command displays basic information about the local server, similar to what is seen in the default window of the Control Panel. The manage-tasks command lets you manage tasks scheduled on a server, such as nightly backup. The status command takes administrative credentials to read the configuration, as does the Control Panel. $ status --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password

--- Server Status ---
Server Run Status:        Started
Open Connections:         1

--- Server Details ---
Host Name:                localhost
Installation Path:        /path/to/opendj
Version:                  OpenDJ 2.7.0-SNAPSHOT
Java Version:             1.6.0_24

--- Connection Handlers ---
-------------:----------:---------
--           : LDIF     : Disabled
0.0.0.0:636  : LDAPS    : Disabled
0.0.0.0:1389 : LDAP     : Enabled
0.0.0.0:1689 : JMX      : Disabled

--- Data Sources ---
Base DN:     dc=example,dc=com
Backend ID:  userRoot
Entries:     163
Replication: Disabled

The manage-tasks command connects over the administration port, and so can connect to both local and remote servers.

$manage-tasks --hostname opendj.example.com --port 4444 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --trustAll --no-prompt ID Type Status -------------------------------------------------------- example Backup Recurring example-20110623030000000 Backup Waiting on start time ## 22.5. Server Logs By default OpenDJ stores access and errors logs as well as a server process ID file under the logs/ directory. For the replication service, OpenDJ also keeps a replication log there. You can also configure a debug log. Furthermore, you can configure policies about how logs are rotated, and how they are retained. You configure logging using the dsconfig command. • The access log traces the operations the server processes including timestamps, connection information, and information about the operation itself. The access log can therefore grow quickly, as each client request results in at least one new log message. The following access log excerpt shows a search operation from the local host, with the first three lines wrapped for readability. [21/Jun/2011:08:01:53 +0200] CONNECT conn=4 from=127.0.0.1:49708 to=127.0.0.1:1389 protocol=LDAP [21/Jun/2011:08:01:53 +0200] SEARCH REQ conn=4 op=0 msgID=1 base="dc=example,dc=com" scope=wholeSubtree filter="(uid=bjensen)" attrs="ALL" [21/Jun/2011:08:01:53 +0200] SEARCH RES conn=4 op=0 msgID=1 result=0 nentries=1 etime=3 [21/Jun/2011:08:01:53 +0200] UNBIND REQ conn=4 op=1 msgID=2 [21/Jun/2011:08:01:53 +0200] DISCONNECT conn=4 reason="Client Unbind" Notice that by default OpenDJ directory server logs a message for the search request, and a message for the search response.[18] The server also logs request and response messages for other operations that have responses, such as bind and modify operations. The server does not, however, log response messages for all operations, as some operations, such as persistent searches, abandon operations, unbind operations, and abandoned operations, do not have responses. Here, you see also that the log message for the unbind request is followed by a log message for the disconnection. • The errors log traces server events, error conditions, and warnings, categorized and identified by severity. The following errors log excerpt shows log entries about a backup task, with lines wrapped for readability. [22/Jun/2011:12:32:23 +0200] category=BACKEND severity=NOTICE msgID=9896349 msg=Backup task 20110622123224088 started execution [22/Jun/2011:12:32:23 +0200] category=TOOLS severity=NOTICE msgID=10944792 msg=Starting backup for backend userRoot [22/Jun/2011:12:32:24 +0200] category=JEB severity=NOTICE msgID=8847446 msg=Archived: 00000000.jdb [22/Jun/2011:12:32:24 +0200] category=TOOLS severity=NOTICE msgID=10944795 msg=The backup process completed successfully [22/Jun/2011:12:32:24 +0200] category=BACKEND severity=NOTICE msgID=9896350 msg=Backup task 20110622123224088 finished execution • If you use the HTTP Connection Handler, OpenDJ maintains a separate access log in logs/http-access. This access log, by default configured as the File Based HTTP Access Log Publisher, uses a different format than the LDAP access log. This HTTP access log uses Extended Log File Format with fields described in Microsoft's implementation as well. The following default fields are shown here in the order they occur in the log file. Interface stability: Evolving cs-host Client host name c-ip Client IP address cs-username Username used to authenticate x-datetime Completion timestamp for the HTTP request, which you can configure using the log-record-time-format property cs-method HTTP method requested by the client cs-uri-query Path and query string requested by the client cs-version HTTP version requested by the client sc-status HTTP status code for the operation cs(User-Agent) User-Agent identifier x-connection-id Connection ID used for OpenDJ internal operations When using this field to match HTTP requests with internal operations in the LDAP access log, first set the access log advanced property, suppress-internal-operations, to false. By default, internal operations do not appear in the LDAP access log. x-etime Execution time in milliseconds needed by OpenDJ to service the HTTP request Missing values are replaced with -. Tabs separate the fields, and if a field contains a tab character, then the field is surrounded with double quotes. OpenDJ then doubles double quotes in the field to escape them. The following example shows an excerpt of an HTTP access log with the default configuration. Lines are folded and space reformatted for the printed page. - 192.168.0.15 bjensen 22/May/2013:10:06:18 +0200 GET /users/bjensen?_prettyPrint=true HTTP/1.1 200 curl/7.21.4 3 40 - 192.168.0.15 bjensen 22/May/2013:10:06:52 +0200 GET /groups/Directory%20Administrators?_prettyPrint=true HTTP/1.1 200 curl/7.21.4 4 41 - 192.168.0.12 bjensen 22/May/2013:10:07:07 +0200 GET /users/missing?_prettyPrint=true HTTP/1.1 200 curl/7.21.4 5 9 - 192.168.0.12 - 22/May/2013:10:07:46 +0200 GET /users/missing?_prettyPrint=true HTTP/1.1 401 curl/7.21.4 6 0 - 192.168.0.15 kvaughan 22/May/2013:10:09:10 +0200 POST /users?_action=create&_prettyPrint=true HTTP/1.1 200 curl/7.21.4 7 120 You can configure the log-format for the access log using the dsconfig command. In addition to the default fields, the following standard fields are supported. c-port Client port number s-computername Server name where the access log was written s-ip Server IP address s-port Server port number • The replication log traces replication events, with entries similar to the errors log. The following excerpt has lines wrapped for readability. [22/Jun/2011:14:37:34 +0200] category=SYNC severity=NOTICE msgID=15139026 msg=Finished total update: exported domain "dc=example,dc=com" from this directory server DS(24065) to all remote directory servers. [22/Jun/2011:14:37:35 +0200] category=SYNC severity=MILD_WARNING msgID=14745663 msg=Replication server RS(23947) at opendj.example.com/10.10.0.168:8989 has closed the connection to this directory server DS(24065). This directory server will now try to connect to another replication server in order to receive changes for the domain "dc=example,dc=com" [22/Jun/2011:14:37:35 +0200] category=SYNC severity=NOTICE msgID=15138894 msg=The generation ID for domain "dc=example,dc=com" has been reset to 3679640 Notice that the replication log does not trace replication operations. Use the external change log instead to get notifications about changes to directory data over protocol. You can alternatively configure an audit log, which is a type of access log that dumps changes in LDIF. • A debug log traces details needed to troubleshoot a problem in the server. Debug logs can grow large quickly, and therefore no debug logs are enabled by default. Each log depends on a log publisher, whose type corresponds to the type of log. OpenDJ uses file-based log publishers. The design allows for custom log publishers, however, which could publish the logs elsewhere besides a file. For debug logging, you also set a debug target to control what gets logged. ### 22.5.1. Log Rotation & Retention Each file-based log can be associated with a log rotation policy, and a log retention policy. The former can specify when, after how much time, or at what maximum size a log is rotated. The latter can specify a maximum number or size of logs to retain, or an amount of free disk space to maintain. The design allows for custom policies as well. By default the file-based logs are subject to rotation and retention policies that you can list with dsconfig list-log-rotation-policies and dsconfig list-log-retention-policies. For example, view the log rotation policies with the following command. $ dsconfig
list-log-rotation-policies
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"

Log Rotation Policy                 : Type       : file-size-limit : rotation-interval : time-of-day
------------------------------------:------------:-----------------:-------------------:------------
24 Hours Time Limit Rotation Policy : time-limit : -               : 1 d               : -
7 Days Time Limit Rotation Policy   : time-limit : -               : 1 w               : -
Fixed Time Rotation Policy          : fixed-time : -               : -                 : 2359
Size Limit Rotation Policy          : size-limit : 100 mb          : -                 : -

View the log retention policies with the following command.

$dsconfig list-log-retention-policies --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password Log Retention Policy : Type : disk-space-used : free-disk-space : number-of-files ---------------------------------:-----------------:-----------------:-----------------:---------------- File Count Retention Policy : file-count : - : - : 10 Free Disk Space Retention Policy : free-disk-space : - : 500 mb : - Size Limit Retention Policy : size-limit : 500 mb : - : - Use the dsconfig get-log-publisher-prop command to examine the policies that apply to a particular logger. $ dsconfig
get-log-publisher-prop
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--publisher-name "File-Based Access Logger"
--property retention-policy
--property rotation-policy
Property         : Value(s)
-----------------:-------------------------------------------------------------
retention-policy : File Count Retention Policy
rotation-policy  : 24 Hours Time Limit Rotation Policy, Size Limit Rotation
: Policy

In other words, by default OpenDJ keeps 10 access log files, rotating the access log each day, or when the log size reaches 100 MB.

The dsconfig command offers a number of subcommands for creating and deleting log rotation and retention policies, and for setting policy properties. You can update which policies apply to a logger by using the dsconfig set-log-publisher-prop command.

### 22.5.2. Log Filtering

Each time a client application sends a request to OpenDJ, the server writes to its access log. As shown above, a simple search operation results in five messages written to the access log. This volume of logging gives you the information to analyze overall access patterns, or to audit access when you do not know in advance what you are looking for.

Yet when you do know what you are looking for, log filtering lets you limit what the server logs, and focus on what you want to see. You define the filter criteria, and also set the filtering policy.

You can filter both access and also audit logs.

Log filtering lets you define rules based these criteria.

• Client IP address, bind DN, group membership

• Port number

• Protocol used (such as LDAP, LDAPS, JMX)

• Response times

• Result codes (only log error results, for example)

• Search response criteria (number of entries returned, whether the search was indexed)

• Target DN

• Type of operation (connect, bind, add, delete, modify, rename, search, etc.)

The filtering policy in the log publisher configuration specifies whether to include or exclude log messages that match the criteria you define. OpenDJ does not filter logs until you update the log publisher configuration.

Example 22.1. Example: Exclude Control Panel-Related Messages

A common development troubleshooting technique consists of sending client requests while tailing the access log:

$tail -f /path/to/opendj/logs/access Trouble is, when OpenDJ Control Panel is running, or when you are also adapting your configuration using the dsconfig command, OpenDJ writes access log messages related to administration. These might prevent you from noticing the messages that interest you. This example demonstrates how to filter out access log messages due to administrative connections over LDAPS on ports 1636 and 4444. Create access log filtering criteria rules. $ dsconfig
create-access-log-filtering-criteria
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--publisher-name "File-Based Access Logger"
--criteria-name "Exclude LDAPS on 1636 and 4444"
--type generic
--set connection-port-equal-to:1636
--set connection-port-equal-to:4444
--set connection-protocol-equal-to:ldaps
--trustAll
--no-prompt

Activate filtering to exclude messages from the default access log according to the criteria you specified.

$dsconfig set-log-publisher-prop --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --publisher-name "File-Based Access Logger" --set filtering-policy:exclusive --trustAll --no-prompt At this point, OpenDJ filters out connections over LDAPS to ports 1636 and 4444. While performing operations in OpenDJ Control Panel, if you perform a simple ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com uid=bjensen cn, then all you see in the access log is the effect of the ldapsearch command. $ tail -f /path/to/opendj/logs/access
[19/Oct/2011:16:37:16 +0200] CONNECT conn=8 from=127.0.0.1:54165
to=127.0.0.1:1389 protocol=LDAP
[19/Oct/2011:16:37:16 +0200] SEARCH REQ conn=8 op=0 msgID=1
base="dc=example,dc=com" scope=wholeSubtree filter="(uid=bjensen)" attrs="cn"
[19/Oct/2011:16:37:16 +0200] SEARCH RES conn=8 op=0 msgID=1 result=0 nentries=1
etime=14
[19/Oct/2011:16:37:16 +0200] UNBIND REQ conn=8 op=1 msgID=2
[19/Oct/2011:16:37:16 +0200] DISCONNECT conn=8 reason="Client Unbind"

In addition to the filtering policy, you can also adjust how OpenDJ writes log messages. By default, OpenDJ writes one log message for a request, and another for a response. You can set the log publisher property log-format to combined to have OpenDJ write a single message per operation. This can be helpful, for example, when evaluating response times. In addition, you can change the log message time stamps with log-record-time-format, and specify whether to log LDAP control OIDs for operations by setting log-control-oids to true.

$dsconfig set-alert-handler-prop --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --handler-name "JMX Alert Handler" --set enabled:true --trustAll --no-prompt OpenDJ can also send mail over SMTP instead of JMX notifications. Before you set up the SMTP-based alert handler, you must identify an SMTP server to which OpenDJ sends messages. $ dsconfig
set-global-configuration-prop
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--set smtp-server:smtp.example.com
--trustAll
--no-prompt
$dsconfig create-alert-handler --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --handler-name "SMTP Alert Handler" --type smtp --set enabled:true --set message-subject:"OpenDJ Alert, Type: %%alert-type%%, ID: %%alert-id%%" --set message-body:"%%alert-message%%" --set recipient-address:kvaughan@example.com --set sender-address:opendj@example.com --trustAll --no-prompt Alert Types OpenDJ directory server uses the following types when sending alerts. For alert types that indicate server problems, check OpenDJ/logs/errors for details. org.opends.server.AccessControlDisabled The access control handler has been disabled. org.opends.server.AccessControlEnabled The access control handler has been enabled. org.opends.server.authentiation.dseecompat.ACIParseFailed The dseecompat access control subsystem failed to correctly parse one or more ACI rules when the server first started. org.opends.server.BackendRunRecovery The JE backend has thrown a RunRecoveryException. The directory server needs to be restarted. org.opends.server.CannotCopySchemaFiles A problem has occurred while attempting to create copies of the existing schema configuration files before making a schema update, and the schema configuration has been left in a potentially inconsistent state. org.opends.server.CannotRenameCurrentTaskFile The directory server is unable to rename the current tasks backing file in the process of trying to write an updated version. org.opends.server.CannotRenameNewTaskFile The directory server is unable to rename the new tasks backing file into place. org.opends.server.CannotScheduleRecurringIteration The directory server is unable to schedule an iteration of a recurring task. org.opends.server.CannotWriteConfig The directory server is unable to write its updated configuration for some reason and therefore the server may not exhibit the new configuration if it is restarted. org.opends.server.CannotWriteNewSchemaFiles A problem has occurred while attempting to write new versions of the server schema configuration files, and the schema configuration has been left in a potentially inconsistent state. org.opends.server.CannotWriteTaskFile The directory server is unable to write an updated tasks backing file for some reason. org.opends.server.DirectoryServerShutdown The directory server has begun the process of shutting down. org.opends.server.DirectoryServerStarted The directory server has completed its startup process. org.opends.server.DiskFull Free disk space has reached the full threshold. Default is 20 MB. org.opends.server.DiskSpaceLow Free disk space has reached the low threshold. Default is 100 MB. org.opends.server.EnteringLockdownMode The directory server is entering lockdown mode, in which only root users are allowed to perform operations and only over the loopback address. org.opends.server.LDAPHandlerDisabledByConsecutiveFailures Consecutive failures have occurred in the LDAP connection handler and have caused it to become disabled. org.opends.server.LDAPHandlerUncaughtError Uncaught errors in the LDAP connection handler that have caused it to become disabled. org.opends.server.LDIFBackendCannotWriteUpdate An LDIF backend was unable to store an updated copy of the LDIF file after processing a write operation. org.opends.server.LDIFConnectionHandlerIOError The LDIF connection handler encountered an I/O error that prevented it from completing its processing. org.opends.server.LDIFConnectionHandlerParseError The LDIF connection handler encountered an unrecoverable error while attempting to parse an LDIF file. org.opends.server.LeavingLockdownMode The directory server is leaving lockdown mode. org.opends.server.ManualConfigEditHandled The directory server detects that its configuration has been manually edited with the server online and those changes were overwritten by another change made through the server. The manually-edited configuration will be copied to another location. org.opends.server.ManualConfigEditLost The directory server detects that its configuration has been manually edited with the server online and those changes were overwritten by another change made through the server. The manually-edited configuration could not be preserved due to an unexpected error. org.opends.server.replication.UnresolvedConflict Multimaster replication cannot resolve a conflict automatically. org.opends.server.UncaughtException A directory server thread has encountered an uncaught exception that caused that thread to terminate abnormally. The impact that this problem has on the server depends on which thread was impacted and the nature of the exception. org.opends.server.UniqueAttributeSynchronizationConflict A unique attribute conflict has been detected during synchronization processing. org.opends.server.UniqueAttributeSynchronizationError An error occurred while attempting to perform unique attribute conflict detection during synchronization processing. [18] You can also configure the access logger to combine log messages by setting the property log-format:combined. The setting is useful when filtering messages based on response criteria. It causes the server to log one message per operation, rather than one message for the request and another for the response. ## Chapter 23. Tuning Servers For Performance Server tuning refers to the art of adjusting server, JVM, and system configuration to meet the service level performance requirements of directory clients. In the optimal case you achieve service level performance requirements without much tuning at all, perhaps only setting JVM runtime options when installing OpenDJ. If you are reading this chapter, however, you are probably not facing an optimal situation. Instead you are looking for trade offs that maximize performance for clients given the constraints of your deployment. This chapter therefore aims to provide suggestions on how to measure and to improve directory service performance for better trade offs. ## 23.1. Defining Performance Requirements & Constraints Your key performance requirement is most likely to satisfy your users or customers with the resources available to you. Before you can solve potential performance problems, define what those users or customers expect, and determine what resources you will have to satisfy their expectations. ### 23.1.1. Service-Level Agreements Service-level agreement (SLA) is a formal name for what directory client applications and the people who run them expect from your service in terms of performance. SLAs might cover many aspects of the directory service. Whether or not your SLA is formally defined, you ought to know what is expected, or at least what you provide, in the following four areas. • Directory service response times Directory service response times range from less than a millisecond on average across a low latency connection on the same network to however long it takes your network to deliver the response. More important than average or best response times is the response time distribution, because applications set timeouts based on worst case scenarios. For example, a response time performance requirement might be defined as, "Directory response times must average less than 10 milliseconds for all operations except searches returning more than 10 entries, with 99.9% of response times under 40 milliseconds." • Directory service throughput Directory service throughput can range up to many thousands of operations per second. In fact there is no upper limit for read operations such as searches, because only write operations must be replicated. To increase read throughput, simply add additional replicas. More important than average throughput is peak throughput. You might have peak write throughput in the middle of the night when batch jobs update entries in bulk, and peak binds for a special event or first thing Monday morning. For example, a throughput performance requirement might be expressed as, "The directory service must sustain a mix of 5,000 operations per second made up of 70% reads, 25% modifies, 3% adds, and 2% deletes." Even better is to mimic the behavior of key operations for performance testing, so that you understand the patterns of operations in the throughput you need to provide. • Directory service availability OpenDJ is designed to let you build directory services that are basically available, including during maintenance and even upgrade of individual servers. Yet, in order to reach very high levels of availability, you must make sure not only that the software is designed for availability, but also that your operations execute in such a way as to preserve availability. Availability requirements can be as lax as best effort, or as stringent as 99.999% or more uptime. Replication is the OpenDJ feature that allows you to build a highly available directory service. • Directory service administrative support Do not forget to make sure you understand and set expectations about how you support your users when they run into trouble. Directory services can perhaps help you turn password management into a self-service visit to a web site, but some users no doubt still need to know what they can expect if they need your help. Writing down the SLA, even if your first version consists of guesses, helps you reduce performance tuning from an open-ended project to a clear set of measurable goals for a manageable project with a definite outcome. ### 23.1.2. Available Resources With your SLA in hand, take inventory of the server, networks, storage, people, and other resources at your disposal. Now is the time to estimate whether it is possible to meet the requirements at all. If for example you are expected to serve more throughput than the network can transfer, maintain high availability with only one physical machine, store 100 GB of backups on a 50 GB partition, or provide 24/7 support all alone, no amount of tweaking available resources is likely to fix the problem. When checking that the resources you have at least theoretically suffice to meet your requirements, do not forget that high availability in particular requires at least two of everything to avoid single points of failure. Be sure to list the resources you expect to have, when and how long you expect to have them, and why you need them. Also make note of what is missing and why. In addition to the suggestions in this section, also read the section on Hardware in the Release Notes. #### 23.1.2.1. Server Hardware Recommendations Concerning server hardware, OpenDJ runs on systems with Java support, and is therefore quite portable. That said, OpenDJ tends to perform best on single-board, x86 systems due to low memory latency. #### 23.1.2.2. Storage Recommendations OpenDJ is designed to work with local storage for the database, not for network file systems such as NFS. High performance storage is essential if you need to handle high write throughput. The Berkeley Java Edition DB works well with traditional disks as long as the database cache size allows the DB to stay fully cached in memory. This is the case because the database transaction log is append only. When the DB is too big to stay cached in memory, however, then cache misses lead to random disk access, slowing OpenDJ performance. You might mitigate this effect by using solid-state disks for persistent storage, or for file system cache. Regarding database size on disk, if you have sustained write traffic then the database grows to about twice its initial size on disk. This is normal, and due to the way the database manages its logs. The size on disk does not impact the DB cache size requirements. In order to avoid directory database file corruption after crashes or power failures on Linux systems, enable file system write barriers and make sure that the file system journaling mode is ordered. For details on how to enable write barriers and how to set the journaling mode for data, see the options for your file system in the mount command manual page. ## 23.2. Testing Performance Even if you do not need high availability, you still need two of everything, because your test environment needs to mimic your production environment as closely as possible if you want to avoid nasty surprises. In your test environment, you set up OpenDJ as you will later in production, and then conduct experiments to determine how best to meet the requirements defined in the SLA. Use make-ldif to generate sample data that match what you expect to find in production. The OpenDJ LDAP Toolkit provides three command-line tools to help with basic performance testing. • The authrate command measures bind throughput and response time. • The modrate command measures modification throughput and response time. • The searchrate command measures search throughput and response time. All three commands show you information about the response time distributions, and allow you to perform tests at specific levels of throughput. If you need additional precision when evaluating response times, use the global configuration setting etime-resolution to change elapsed processing time resolution from milliseconds (default) to nanoseconds. $ dsconfig
set-global-configuration-prop
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--set etime-resolution:nanoseconds
--no-prompt

## 23.3. Tweaking OpenDJ Performance

When your tests show that OpenDJ performance is lacking even though you have the right underlying network, hardware, storage, and system resources in place, you can tweak OpenDJ performance in a number of ways. This section mentions the most common tweaks.

### 23.3.1. Maximum Open Files

OpenDJ needs to be able to open many file descriptors, especially when handling thousands of client connections. Linux systems in particular often set a limit of 1024 per user, which is too low to handle many client connections to OpenDJ.

When setting up OpenDJ for production use, make sure OpenDJ can use at least 64K (65536) file descriptors. For example when running OpenDJ as user opendj on a Linux system that uses /etc/security/limits.conf to set user level limits, you can set soft and hard limits by adding these lines to the file:

opendj soft nofile 65536
opendj hard nofile 131072

The example above assumes the system has enough file descriptors available overall. You can check the Linux system overall maximum as follows.

$cat /proc/sys/fs/file-max 204252 ### 23.3.2. Java Settings Default Java settings let you evaluate OpenDJ using limited system resources. If you need high performance for production system, test with the following JVM options. These apply to the Sun/Oracle JVM. ### Tip To apply JVM settings for your server, edit config/java.properties, and apply the changes with the dsjavaproperties command. -server Use the C2 compiler and optimizer. -d64 To use a heap larger than about 3.5 GB on a 64-bit system, use this option. -Xms, -Xmx Set both minimum and maximum heap size to the same value to avoid resizing. Leave space for the entire DB cache and more. -Xmn Set the new generation size between 1-4 GB for high throughput deployments, but leave enough overall JVM heap to avoid overlaps with the space used for DB cache. -XX:MaxTenuringThreshold=1 Force OpenDJ to create only objects that have either a short lifetime, or a long lifetime. -XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC The CMS garbage collector tends to give the best performance characteristics. You might also consider the G1 garbage collector. -XX:+PrintGCDetails, -XX:+PrintGCTimeStamps Use these when diagnosing JVM tuning problems. You can turn them off when everything is running smoothly. -XX:+UseCompressedOops Java object pointers normally have the same size as native machine pointers. If you run a small, but 64-bit JVM, then compressed object pointers can save space. Set this option when you have a 64-bit JVM, -Xmx less than 32 GB, and Java SE 6u23 or later. ### 23.3.3. Data Storage Settings By default, OpenDJ compressing attribute descriptions and object class sets to reduce data size. This is called compact encoding. By default, OpenDJ does not however compress entries stored in its backend database. If your entries hold values that compress well — such as text, and not JPEG photos or MP3 audio — you can gain space by setting the local DB backend property entries-compressed to true before you (re-)import data from LDIF. With entries-compressed: true OpenDJ compresses entries before writing them to the database.[19] $ dsconfig
set-backend-prop
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--backend-name userRoot
--set entries-compressed:true
--trustAll
--no-prompt
$import-ldif --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --ldifFile /path/to/Example.ldif --backendID userRoot --includeBranch dc=example,dc=com --start 0 Import task 20120917100628767 scheduled to start Sep 17, 2012 10:06:28 AM CEST ### 23.3.4. LDIF Import Settings You can tweak OpenDJ to speed up import of large LDIF files. By default, the temporary directory used for scratch files is import-tmp under the directory where you installed OpenDJ. Use import-ldif with the --tmpdirectory option to set this directory to a tmpfs file system, such as /tmp. In some cases, you can improve performance by using the --threadCount option with the import-ldif command to set the thread count larger than the default, which is twice the number of CPUs. If you are certain your LDIF contains only valid entries with correct syntax, because the LDIF was exported from OpenDJ with all checks active for example, you can skip schema and DN validation. Use the --skipSchemaValidation and --skipDNValidation options with the import-ldif command to skip validation. ### 23.3.5. Database Cache Settings Database cache size is, by default, set as a percentage of the JVM heap, using the backend property db-cache-percent. Alternatively, you use the backend property db-cache-size to set the size. If you set up multiple database backends, the total percent of JVM heap used must remain less than 100, and must leave space for other uses. Default settings work for servers with one user data backend JVM heaps up to 2 GB. For heaps larger than 2 GB, you can allocate a larger percentage of heap space to DB cache. Depending on the size of your database, you have a choice to make about database cache settings. By caching the entire database in the JVM heap, you can get more deterministic response times and limit disk I/O. Yet, caching the whole DB can require a very large JVM, which you must pre-load on startup, and which can result in long garbage collections and a difficult-to-manage JVM. Test database pre-load on startup by setting the preload-time-limit for the backend. $ dsconfig
set-backend-prop
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--backend-name userRoot
--trustAll
--no-prompt

By allowing file system cache to hold the portion of database that does not fit in DB cache, you trade less deterministic and slightly slower response times for not having to pre-load the DB and not having garbage collection pauses with large JVMs. How you configure the file system cache depends on your operating system.

### 23.3.6. Entry Cache Settings

OpenDJ implements an entry cache. The entry cache is not designed to cache every entry in your database, but is instead useful in cases where you have a few, typically large entries that are regularly used. For example, if you have a few large static groups and applications that regularly check group membership, you could cache your group entries.

$dsconfig create-entry-cache --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --cache-name "Large Group Entry Cache" --type fifo --set cache-level:1 --set include-filter:"(ou=Large Static Groups)" --set max-entries:10 --set enabled:true --trustAll --no-prompt You can use the global setting, entry-cache-preload, to force OpenDJ to load the entry cache as part of server startup. $ dsconfig
set-global-configuration-prop
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--no-prompt

By default, OpenDJ does not pre-load the entry cache.

### 23.3.7. Logging Settings

Debug logs trace the internal workings of OpenDJ, and therefore generally should be used sparingly, especially in high performance deployments.

In general leave other logs active for production environments to help troubleshoot any issues that arise.

For OpenDJ servers handling very high throughput, however, such as 100,000 operations per second or more, the access log constitute a performance bottleneck, as each client request results in multiple access log messages. Consider disabling the access log in such cases.

$dsconfig set-log-publisher-prop --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --publisher-name "File-Based Access Logger" --set enabled:false --trustAll --no-prompt [19] OpenDJ does not proactively rewrite all entries in the database after you change the settings. Instead, to force OpenDJ to compress all entries, import the data from LDIF. ## Chapter 24. Changing Server Certificates OpenDJ uses key stores (for private keys) and trust stores (for public, signed certificates). Up to three sets of key stores are used, as shown in the following illustration. OpenDJ uses different sets of public and private keys for different secure connections. By default the key stores are located in the /path/to/opendj/config directory. • The keystore and truststore hold keys for securing connections with client applications. • The admin-keystore and admin-truststore hold keys for securing administrative connections, such as those used when connecting with the dsconfig command. • The ads-truststore holds keys for securing replication connections with other OpenDJ servers in the replication topology. Each key store has a specific purpose. admin-keystore This Java Key Store holds the private key and administrative certificate for the server, admin-cert. This key pair is used to protect communications on the administration port. The password, stored in admin-keystore.pin, is also the key password for admin-cert. admin-truststore This Java Key Store holds a copy of the administrative certificate, admin-cert. The password is the same as for the admin-keystore, in other words the string in admin-keystore.pin. ads-truststore This Java Key Store holds public key certificates of all servers replicating with the current server. It also includes the ads-certificate key pair of the current server. The password is stored in ads-truststore.pin. Do not change this key store directly. keystore This Java Key Store holds the private key and server certificate, server-cert, used to protect TLS/SSL communications with client applications. The password, stored in keystore.pin, is also the key password for server-cert. truststore This Java Key Store holds a copy of the server-cert certificate from the keystore. This is also where you import certificates of client applications if you want OpenDJ to recognize them. The password is the same as for the keystore, in other words the string in keystore.pin. ### Tip Examples in this chapter use self-signed certificates, but you can also use certificates signed by a Certificate Authority (CA). When importing a certificate (keytool -import) signed by a well-known CA, use the -trustcacerts option to trust the CA certificates delivered with the Java runtime environment. Procedure 24.1. To Replace a Server Key Pair This procedure shows how to replace a server key pair in the admin-keystore and copy of the administrative certificate in admin-truststore. The examples also apply when replacing a key pair in the keystore and copy of the server certificate in truststore. Just adapt the commands to use the correct key store, trust store, and PIN file names. This procedure does not apply for replication key pairs. Instead, see Procedure 24.2, “To Replace the Key Pair Used for Replication”. 1. Check the alias of the key pair and certificate copy to replace. $ cd /path/to/opendj/config
$keytool -list -keystore admin-keystore -storepass cat admin-keystore.pin Keystore type: JKS Keystore provider: SUN Your keystore contains 1 entry admin-cert, Mar 15, 2013, PrivateKeyEntry, Certificate fingerprint (SHA1): 54:9F:C3:F8:7B:B6:...:0A:98:D0:17:8E$ keytool -list -keystore admin-truststore -storepass cat admin-keystore.pin

Keystore type: JKS
Keystore provider: SUN

Certificate fingerprint (SHA1): 54:9F:C3:F8:7B:B6:...:0A:98:D0:17:8E

This alias is also stored in the server configuration.

2. Remove the key pair and certificate copy to replace.

$keytool -delete -alias admin-cert -keystore admin-keystore -storepass cat admin-keystore.pin$ keytool
-delete
-storepass cat admin-keystore.pin
3. Generate a new key pair in the key store.

$keytool -genkey -alias admin-cert -keyalg RSA -validity 7300 -keysize 2048 -dname "CN=opendj.example.com, O=Administration Connector Self-Signed Certificate" -keystore admin-keystore -storepass cat admin-keystore.pin -keypass cat admin-keystore.pin Notice that the -alias option takes the same alias as before. This is because the ssl-cert-nickname for the Administration Connector is configured as admin-cert. Also, the -dname option has a CN value corresponding to the fully-qualified domain name of the host where OpenDJ directory server is running. 4. Get the new key pair's certificate signed, using one of the following alternatives. • Self-sign the certificate. $ keytool
-selfcert
-storepass cat admin-keystore.pin
• Create a certificate signing request, have it signed by a CA, and import the signed certificate from the CA reply.

For examples of the keytool commands to use, see the procedure To Request and Install a CA-Signed Certificate.

5. Export a copy of the certificate from the key store.

$keytool -export -alias admin-cert -keystore admin-keystore -storepass cat admin-keystore.pin -file admin-cert.crt Certificate stored in file <admin-cert.crt> 6. Import the copy of the certificate into the trust store. $ keytool
-import
-storepass cat admin-keystore.pin
Owner: CN=opendj.example.com, O=Administration Connector Self-Signed Certificate
Issuer: CN=opendj.example.com, O=Administration Connector Self-Signed Certificate
Serial number: 904fc2b
Valid from: Fri Mar 15 15:15:20 CET 2013 until: Thu Jun 13 16:15:20 CEST 2013
Certificate fingerprints:
MD5:  DD:2A:A1:3A:39:87:DF:02:15:A4:8A:9D:77:89:F1:E4
SHA1: E1:99:82:92:D7:9B:28:B7:93:D2:B5:5B:C9:DA:4E:D2:62:C2:E7:B0
SHA256: C5:34:9C:04:E2:87:A9:B1:72:B5:...:99:86:3A:02:28:D0:AB:02:5F:F4:BE
Signature algorithm name: SHA256withRSA
Version: 3

Extensions:

#1: ObjectId: 2.5.29.14 Criticality=false
SubjectKeyIdentifier [
KeyIdentifier [
0000: FE 33 69 67 FF E8 64 F6   D3 FB CD 14 1C D3 01 44  .3ig..d........D
0010: EE 62 40 DD                                        .b@.
]
]

Trust this certificate? [no]:  yes
Certificate was added to keystore
7. Restart OpenDJ to make sure it reloads the key stores.

$cd /path/to/opendj/bin$ stop-ds --restart
8. If you have client applications trusting the self-signed certificate, have them import the new one (admin-cert.crt in this example).

Procedure 24.2. To Replace the Key Pair Used for Replication

Follow these steps to replace the key pair that is used to secure replication connections.

1. Generate a new key pair for the server.

The changes you perform are replicated across the topology.

OpenDJ has an ads-certificate and private key, which is a local copy of the key pair used to secure replication connections.

To generate the new key pair, you remove the ads-certificate key pair, prompt OpenDJ to generate a new ads-certificate key pair, and then add a copy to the administrative data using the MD5 fingerprint of the certificate to define the RDN.

1. Delete the ads-certificate entry.

$ldapmodify --port 1389 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password dn: ds-cfg-key-id=ads-certificate,cn=ads-truststore changetype: delete Processing DELETE request for ds-cfg-key-id=ads-certificate,cn=ads-truststore DELETE operation successful for DN ds-cfg-key-id=ads-certificate, cn=ads-truststore 2. Prompt OpenDJ to generate a new, self-signed ads-certificate key pair. You do this by adding an ads-certificate entry with object class ds-cfg-self-signed-cert-request. $ ldapmodify
--port 1389
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
objectclass: ds-cfg-self-signed-cert-request

ADD operation successful for DN ds-cfg-key-id=ads-certificate,cn=ads-truststore
3. Retrieve the ads-certificate entry.

$ldapsearch --port 1389 --hostname opendj.example.com --baseDN cn=ads-truststore "(ds-cfg-key-id=ads-certificate)" dn: ds-cfg-key-id=ads-certificate,cn=ads-truststore ds-cfg-key-id: ads-certificate ds-cfg-public-key-certificate;binary:: MIIB6zCCAVSgAwIBAgIEDKSUFjANBgkqhkiG9w0BA QUFADA6MRswGQYDVQQKExJPcGVuREogQ2VydGlmaWNhdGUxGzAZBgNVBAMTEm9wZW5hbS5leGFtcGxl LmNvbTAeFw0xMzAyMDcxMDMwMzNaFw0zMzAyMDIxMDMwMzNaMDoxGzAZBgNVBAoTEk9wZW5ESiBDZXJ 0aWZpY2F0ZTEbMBkGA1UEAxMSb3BlbmFtLmV4YW1wbGUuY29tMIGfMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBAQUAA4GNAD CBiQKBgQCfGLAiUOz4sC8CM9T5DPTk9V9ErNC8N59XwBt1aN7UjhQl4/JZZsetubtUrZBLS9cRrnYdZ cpFgLQNEmXifS+PdZ0DJkaLNFmd8ZX0spX8++fb4SkkggkmNRmi1fccDQ/DHMlwl7kk884lXummrzcD GbZ7p4vnY7y7GmD1vZSP+wIDAQABMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBBQUAA4GBAJciUzUP8T8A9VV6dQB0SYCNG1o 7IvpE7jGVZh6KvM0m5sBNX3wPbTVJQNij3TDm8nx6yhi6DUkpiAZfz/OBL5k+WSw80TjpIZ2+klhP1s srsST4Um4fHzDZXOXHR6NM83XxZBsR6MazYecL8CiGwnYW2AeBapzbAnGn1J831q1q objectClass: top objectClass: ds-cfg-instance-key 4. Retrieve the MD5 fingerprint of the ads-certificate. In this example, the MD5 fingerprint is 07:35:80:D8:F3:CE:E1:39:9C:D0:73:DB:6C:FA:CC:1C. $ keytool
-list
-v
-storepass cat /path/to/opendj/config/ads-truststore.pin
Creation date: Feb 7, 2013
Entry type: PrivateKeyEntry
Certificate chain length: 1
Certificate[1]:
Owner: CN=opendj.example.com, O=OpenDJ Certificate
Issuer: CN=opendj.example.com, O=OpenDJ Certificate
Serial number: ca49416
Valid from: Thu Feb 07 11:30:33 CET 2013 until: Wed Feb 02 11:30:33 CET 2033
Certificate fingerprints:
MD5:  07:35:80:D8:F3:CE:E1:39:9C:D0:73:DB:6C:FA:CC:1C
SHA1: 56:30:F6:79:AA:C0:BD:61:88:3E:FB:38:38:9D:84:70:0B:E4:43:57
SHA256: A8:4B:81:EE:30:2A:0C:09:2E:...:C1:41:F5:AB:19:C6:EE:AB:50:64
Signature algorithm name: SHA1withRSA
Version: 3
5. Using the MD5 fingerprint and the certificate entry, prepare LDIF to update cn=admin data with the new server certificate.

$cat /path/to/update-server-cert.ldif dn: ds-cfg-key-id=073580D8F3CEE1399CD073DB6CFACC1C,cn=instance keys, cn=admin data changetype: add ds-cfg-key-id: 073580D8F3CEE1399CD073DB6CFACC1C ds-cfg-public-key-certificate;binary:: MIIB6zCCAVSgAwIBAgIEDKSUFjANBgkqhkiG9w0BA QUFADA6MRswGQYDVQQKExJPcGVuREogQ2VydGlmaWNhdGUxGzAZBgNVBAMTEm9wZW5hbS5leGFtcGxl LmNvbTAeFw0xMzAyMDcxMDMwMzNaFw0zMzAyMDIxMDMwMzNaMDoxGzAZBgNVBAoTEk9wZW5ESiBDZXJ 0aWZpY2F0ZTEbMBkGA1UEAxMSb3BlbmFtLmV4YW1wbGUuY29tMIGfMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBAQUAA4GNAD CBiQKBgQCfGLAiUOz4sC8CM9T5DPTk9V9ErNC8N59XwBt1aN7UjhQl4/JZZsetubtUrZBLS9cRrnYdZ cpFgLQNEmXifS+PdZ0DJkaLNFmd8ZX0spX8++fb4SkkggkmNRmi1fccDQ/DHMlwl7kk884lXummrzcD GbZ7p4vnY7y7GmD1vZSP+wIDAQABMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBBQUAA4GBAJciUzUP8T8A9VV6dQB0SYCNG1o 7IvpE7jGVZh6KvM0m5sBNX3wPbTVJQNij3TDm8nx6yhi6DUkpiAZfz/OBL5k+WSw80TjpIZ2+klhP1s srsST4Um4fHzDZXOXHR6NM83XxZBsR6MazYecL8CiGwnYW2AeBapzbAnGn1J831q1q objectClass: top objectClass: ds-cfg-instance-key dn: cn=opendj.example.com:4444,cn=Servers,cn=admin data changetype: modify replace: ds-cfg-key-id ds-cfg-key-id: 073580D8F3CEE1399CD073DB6CFACC1C  6. Update the administrative data, causing OpenDJ to create a copy of the new ads-certificate with its MD5 signature as the alias in the ads-truststore. $ ldapmodify
--port 1389
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--filename /path/to/update-server-cert.ldif
ADD operation successful for DN ds-cfg-key-id=073580D8F3CEE1399CD073DB6CFACC1C,
Processing MODIFY request for cn=opendj.example.com:4444,cn=Servers,
MODIFY operation successful for DN cn=opendj.example.com:4444,cn=Servers,
cn=admin data
2. Force OpenDJ to reopen replication connections using the new key pair.

Stop replication temporarily and then start it again as described in the Administration Guide section on Configuring Replication.

$dsconfig set-synchronization-provider-prop --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --provider-name "Multimaster Synchronization" --set enabled:false --no-prompt$ dsconfig
set-synchronization-provider-prop
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--provider-name "Multimaster Synchronization"
--set enabled:true
--no-prompt

## Chapter 25. Moving Servers

When you change where OpenDJ is deployed, you must take host names, port numbers, and certificates into account. The changes can also affect your replication configuration. This chapter shows what to do when moving a server.

## 25.1. Overview

From time to time you might change server hardware, file system layout, or host names. At those times you move the services running on the system. You can move OpenDJ data between servers and operating systems. Most of the configuration is also portable.

Two aspects of the configuration are not portable.

• Server certificates contain the host name of the system. Even if you did not set up secure communications when you installed the server, the server still has a certificate used for secure communications on the administrative port.

To resolve the issue with server certificates, you can change the server certificates during the move as described in this chapter.

• Replication configuration includes the host name and administrative port numbers.

You can work around the issue with replication configuration by disabling replication for the server before the move, and then enabling and initializing replication again after the move.

## 25.2. Before You Move

Take a moment to determine whether you find it quicker and easier to move your server, or instead to recreate a copy. To recreate a copy, install a new server, set up the new server configuration to match the old, and then copy only the data from the old server to the new server, initializing replication from existing data, or even from LDIF if your database is not too large.

After you decide to move a server, start by taking it out of service. Taking it out of service means directing client applications elsewhere, and then preventing updates from client applications, and finally disabling replication, too. Directing client applications elsewhere depends on your network configuration and possibly on your client application configuration. The other two steps can be completed with the dsconfig and dsreplication commands.

Procedure 25.1. To Take the Server Out of Service
1. Direct client applications to other servers.

How you do this depends on your network and client application configurations.

2. Prevent the server from accepting updates from client applications.

$dsconfig set-global-configuration-prop --port 4444 --hostname opendj2.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --set writability-mode:internal-only --trustAll --no-prompt 3. Disable replication for the server. $ dsreplication
disable
--disableAll
--port 4444
--hostname opendj2.example.com
--trustAll
--no-prompt
Establishing connections ..... Done.
Disabling replication on base DN dc=example,dc=com of server
opendj2.example.com:4444 ..... Done.
Disabling replication on base DN cn=admin data of server
opendj2.example.com:4444 ..... Done.
Disabling replication on base DN cn=schema of server
opendj2.example.com:4444 ..... Done.
Disabling replication port 8989 of server opendj2.example.com:4444 ..... Done.
Removing registration information ..... Done.
Removing truststore information ..... Done.

See
/var/.../opends-replication-3173475478874782719.log
for a detailed log of this operation.
4. With the server no longer receiving traffic or accepting updates from clients, and no longer replicating to other servers, you can shut it down in preparation for the move.

$stop-ds Stopping Server... ... msg=The Directory Server is now stopped 5. You might also choose to remove extra log files from the server logs/ directory before moving the server. ## 25.3. Moving a Server Now that you have decided to move your server, and prepared for the move, you must not only move the files but also fix the configuration and the server certificates, and then enable replication. Procedure 25.2. To Move the Server 1. Move the contents of the server installation directory to the new location. 2. If you must change port numbers, edit the port numbers in config/config.ldif, carefully avoiding changing any whitespace or other lines in the file. 3. Change server certificates as described in the chapter on Changing Server Certificates. 4. Start the server. $ start-ds
... The Directory Server has started successfully
5. Enable and initialize replication.

$dsreplication enable --adminUID admin --bindPassword password --baseDN dc=example,dc=com --host1 opendj.example.com --port1 4444 --bindDN1 "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword1 password --replicationPort1 8989 --host2 opendj2.example.com --port2 4444 --bindDN2 "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword2 password --replicationPort2 8989 --trustAll --no-prompt Establishing connections ..... Done. Checking registration information ..... Done. Configuring Replication port on server opendj.example.com:4444 ..... Done. Updating remote references on server opendj2.example.com:4444 ..... Done. Updating replication configuration for baseDN dc=example,dc=com on server opendj.example.com:4444 ..... Done. Updating replication configuration for baseDN dc=example,dc=com on server opendj2.example.com:4444 ..... Done. Updating registration configuration on server opendj.example.com:4444 ..... Done. Updating registration configuration on server opendj2.example.com:4444 ..... Done. Updating replication configuration for baseDN cn=schema on server opendj.example.com:4444 ..... Done. Updating replication configuration for baseDN cn=schema on server opendj2.example.com:4444 ..... Done. Initializing registration information on server opendj.example.com:4444 with the contents of server opendj2.example.com:4444 ..... Done. Initializing schema on server opendj2.example.com:4444 with the contents of server opendj.example.com:4444 ..... Done. Replication has been successfully enabled. Note that for replication to work you must initialize the contents of the base DN's that are being replicated (use dsreplication initialize to do so). See /tmp/opends-replication-1476402020764482023.log for a detailed log of this operation.$ dsreplication
pre-external-initialization
--port 4444
--baseDN dc=example,dc=com
--trustAll
--no-prompt

Preparing base DN dc=example,dc=com to be initialized externally ..... Done.

Now you can proceed to the initialization of the contents of the base DN's on
all the replicated servers.  You can use the command import-ldif or the binary
copy to do so.  You must use the same LDIF file or binary copy on each server.

When the initialization is completed you must use the subcommand
'post-external-initialization' for replication to work with the new base DN's
contents.
$dsreplication post-external-initialization --adminUID admin --bindPassword password --port 4444 --baseDN dc=example,dc=com --trustAll --no-prompt Updating replication information on base DN dc=example,dc=com ..... Done. Post initialization procedure completed successfully. 6. Accept updates from client applications. $ dsconfig
set-global-configuration-prop
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--set writability-mode:enabled
--trustAll
--no-prompt
7. Direct client applications to the server.

## Chapter 26. Troubleshooting Server Problems

This chapter describes how to troubleshoot common server problems, and how to collect information necessary when seeking support help.

## 26.1. Identifying the Problem

In order to solve your problem methodically, save time by defining the problem clearly up front. In a replicated environment with multiple directory servers and many client applications, it can be particularly important to pin down not only the problem (difference in observed behavior compared to expected behavior), but also the circumstances and steps that lead to the problem occurring.

• How do you reproduce the problem?

• What exactly is the problem? In other words, what is the behavior you expected? What is the behavior you observed?

• When did the problem start occurring? Under similar circumstances, when does the problem not occur?

• Is the problem permanent? Intermittent? Is it getting worse? Getting better? Staying the same?

Pinpointing the problem can sometimes indicate where you should start looking for solutions.

## 26.2. Troubleshooting Installation & Upgrade

Installation and upgrade procedures result in a log file tracing the operation. The log location differs by operating system, but look for lines in the command output of the following form.

See /var/....log for a detailed log of this operation.

This section describes what to do if you forgot the password for Directory Manager or for the global (replication) administrator.

Procedure 26.1. Resetting the Directory Manager's Password

OpenDJ directory server stores the entry for Directory Manager in the LDIF representation of its configuration. You must be able to edit directory server files in order to reset Directory Manager's password.

1. Generate the encoded version of the new password using the OpenDJ encode-password command.

$encode-password --storageScheme SSHA512 --clearPassword password Encoded Password: "{SSHA512}yWqHnYV4a5llPvE7WHLe5jzK27oZQWLIlVcs9gySu4TyZJMg NQNRtnR/Xx2xces1wu1dVLI9jVVtl1W4BVsmOKjyjr0rWrHt" 2. Stop OpenDJ directory server while you edit the configuration. $ stop-ds
3. Find Directory Manager's entry, which has DN cn=Directory Manager,cn=Root DNs,cn=config, in /path/to/opendj/config/config.ldif, and carefully replace the userpassword attribute value with the encoded version of the new password, taking care not to leave any whitespace at the end of the line.

dn: cn=Directory Manager,cn=Root DNs,cn=config
objectClass: person
objectClass: inetOrgPerson
objectClass: organizationalPerson
objectClass: ds-cfg-root-dn-user
objectClass: top
NQNRtnR/Xx2xces1wu1dVLI9jVVtl1W4BVsmOKjyjr0rWrHt
givenName: Directory
cn: Directory Manager
ds-cfg-alternate-bind-dn: cn=Directory Manager
sn: Manager
,cn=config
ds-rlim-time-limit: 0
ds-rlim-lookthrough-limit: 0
ds-rlim-idle-time-limit: 0
ds-rlim-size-limit: 0
4. Start OpenDJ directory server again.

$start-ds 5. Verify that you can administer the server as Directory Manager using the new password. $ dsconfig -p 4444 -h opendj.example.com -D "cn=Directory Manager" -w password

>>>> OpenDJ configuration console main menu

What do you want to configure?

...

Enter choice: q

When you enable replication, part of the process involves creating a global administrator and setting that user's password. This user is present on all replicas. If you chose default values, this user has DN cn=admin,cn=Administrators,cn=admin data. You reset the password as you would for any other user, though you do so as Directory Manager.

$ldappasswordmodify --useStartTLS --port 1389 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --authzID "cn=admin,cn=Administrators,cn=admin data" --newPassword password The LDAP password modify operation was successful 2. Let replication copy the password change to other replicas. ## 26.4. Enabling Debug Logging OpenDJ can write debug information and stack traces to the server debug log. What is logged depends both on debug targets that you create, and also on the debug level that you choose. Procedure 26.3. To Configure Debug Logging 1. Enable the debug log, opendj/logs/debug, which is not enabled by default. $ dsconfig
set-log-publisher-prop
--hostname opendj.example.com
--port 4444
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--publisher-name "File-Based Debug Logger"
--set enabled:true
--set default-debug-level:all
--no-prompt
--trustAll

You can set default-debug-level to a less verbose level if necessary.

2. Create a debug target or targets.

No debug targets are enabled by default.

$dsconfig list-debug-targets --hostname opendj.example.com --port 4444 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --publisher-name "File-Based Debug Logger" --no-prompt --trustAll Debug Target : debug-level : debug-category -------------:-------------:---------------$ 

A debug target specifies a fully-qualified OpenDJ Java package, class, or method for which to log debug messages at the level you specify.

$dsconfig create-debug-target --hostname opendj.example.com --port 4444 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --publisher-name "File-Based Debug Logger" --type generic --target-name org.opends.server.api --set debug-level:all --no-prompt --trustAll 3. Restart OpenDJ to see debug messages in the log. $ /path/to/opendj/bin/stop-ds --restart
...
$tail -f /path/to/opendj/logs/debug ... If you have set debug-level:all, OpenDJ generates a great deal of output in the debug log file. Use debug logging very sparingly on production systems. ## 26.5. Preventing Access While You Fix Issues Misconfiguration can potentially put OpenDJ in a state where you must intervene, and where you need to prevent users and applications from accessing the directory until you are done fixing the problem. OpenDJ provides a lockdown mode that allows connections only on the loopback address, and allows only operations requested by root users, such as cn=Directory Manager. You can use lockdown mode to prevent all but administrative access to OpenDJ in order to repair the server. To put OpenDJ into lockdown mode, the server must be running. You cause the server to enter lockdown mode by using a task. Notice that the modify operation is performed over the loopback address (accessing OpenDJ on the local host). $ ldapmodify
--port 1389
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
objectClass: top

ds-task-id=Enter Lockdown Mode,cn=Scheduled Tasks,cn=tasks

OpenDJ logs a notice message in logs/errors when lockdown mode takes effect.

[30/Jan/2012:17:04:32 +0100] category=BACKEND severity=NOTICE msgID=9896350
msg=Lockdown task Enter Lockdown Mode finished execution

Client applications that request operations get a message concerning lockdown mode.

$ldapsearch --port 1389 --baseDN "" --searchScope base "(objectclass=*)" + SEARCH operation failed Result Code: 53 (Unwilling to Perform) Additional Information: Rejecting the requested operation because the server is in lockdown mode and will only accept requests from root users over loopback connections You also leave lockdown mode by using a task. $ ldapmodify
--port 1389
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
objectClass: top

ds-task-id=Leave Lockdown Mode,cn=Scheduled Tasks,cn=tasks

OpenDJ also logs a notice message when leaving lockdown.

[30/Jan/2012:17:13:05 +0100] category=BACKEND severity=NOTICE msgID=9896350
msg=Leave Lockdown task Leave Lockdown Mode finished execution

## 26.6. Troubleshooting LDIF Import

By default OpenDJ requires that LDIF data you import respect standards. In particular, OpenDJ is set to check that entries to import match the schema defined for the server. You can temporarily bypass this check by using the --skipSchemaValidation with the import-ldif command.

OpenDJ also ensures by default that entries have only one structural object class. You can relax this behavior by using the advanced global configuration property, single-structural-objectclass-behavior. This can be useful when importing data exported from Sun Directory Server. For example, to warn when entries have more than one structural object class instead of reject such entries being added, set single-structural-objectclass-behavior:warn as follows.

$dsconfig set-global-configuration-prop --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password --set single-structural-objectclass-behavior:warn --trustAll --no-prompt By default, OpenDJ also checks syntax for a number of attribute types. You can relax this behavior as well by using the dsconfig set-attribute-syntax-prop command. See the list of attribute syntaxes and use the --help option for further information. When running import-ldif, you can use the -R rejectFile option to capture entries that could not be imported, and the --countRejects option to return the number of rejected entries as the import-ldif exit code. Once you work through the issues with your LDIF data, reinstate the default behavior to ensure automated checking. ## 26.7. Troubleshooting TLS/SSL Connections In order to trust the server certificate, client applications usually compare the signature on certificates with those of the Certificate Authorities (CAs) whose certificates are distributed with the client software. For example, the Java environment is distributed with a key store holding many CA certificates. $ keytool -list -keystore $JAVA_HOME/lib/security/cacerts -storepass changeit | wc -l 334 The self-signed server certificates that can be configured during OpenDJ setup are not recognized as being signed by any CAs. Your software therefore is configured not to trust the self-signed certificates by default. You must either configure the client applications to accept the self-signed certificates, or else use certificates signed by recognized CAs. You can further debug the network traffic by collecting debug traces. To see the traffic going over TLS/SSL in debug mode, configure OpenDJ to dump debug traces from javax.net.debug into the logs/server.out file. OPENDJ_JAVA_ARGS="-Djavax.net.debug=all" start-ds ### 26.7.1. Troubleshooting Certificates & SSL Authentication Replication uses SSL to protect directory data on the network. In some configurations, replica can fail to connect to each other due to SSL handshake errors. This leads to error log messages such as the following. [21/Nov/2011:13:03:20 -0600] category=SYNC severity=NOTICE msgID=15138921 msg=SSL connection attempt from myserver (123.456.789.012) failed: Remote host closed connection during handshake Notice these problem characteristics in the message above. • The host name, myserver, is not fully qualified. You should not see non fully qualified host names in the error logs. Non fully qualified host names are a sign that an OpenDJ server has not been configured properly. Always install and configure OpenDJ using fully-qualified host names. The OpenDJ administration connector, which is used by the dsconfig command, and also replication depend upon SSL and, more specifically, self-signed certificates for establishing SSL connections. If the host name used for connection establishment does not correspond to the host name stored in the SSL certificate then the SSL handshake can fail. For the purposes of establishing the SSL connection, a host name like myserver does not match myserver.example.com, and vice versa. • The connection succeeded, but the SSL handshake failed, suggesting a problem with authentication or with the cipher or protocol negotiation. As most deployments use the same Java Virtual Machine, and the same JVM configuration for each replica, the problem is likely not related to SSL cipher or protocol negotiation, but instead lies with authentication. Follow these steps on each OpenDJ server to check whether the problem lies with the host name configuration. 1. Make sure each OpenDJ server uses only fully qualified host names in the replication configuration. You can obtain a quick summary by running the following command against each server's configuration. $ grep ds-cfg-replication-server: config/config.ldif | sort | uniq
2. Make sure that the host names in OpenDJ certificates also contain fully qualified host names, and correspond to the host names found in the previous step.

# Examine the certificates used for the administration connector.
$keytool -list -v -keystore config/admin-truststore -storepass cat config/admin-keystore.pin |grep "^Owner:" # Examine the certificates used for replication.$ keytool -list -v -keystore config/ads-truststore
-storepass cat config/ads-truststore.pin| grep "^Owner:"


Sample output for a server on host opendj.example.com follows.

$grep ds-cfg-replication-server: config/config.ldif |sort | uniq ds-cfg-replication-server: opendj.example.com:8989 ds-cfg-replication-server: opendj.example.com:9989$ keytool -list -v -keystore config/admin-truststore
-storepass cat config/admin-keystore.pin | grep "^Owner:"
Owner: CN=opendj.example.com, O=Administration Connector Self-Signed Certificate

$keytool -list -v -keystore config/ads-truststore -storepass cat config/ads-truststore.pin| grep "^Owner:" Owner: CN=opendj.example.com, O=OpenDJ Certificate Owner: CN=opendj.example.com, O=OpenDJ Certificate Owner: CN=opendj.example.com, O=OpenDJ Certificate Unfortunately there is no easy solution to badly configured host names. It is often easier and quicker simply to reinstall your OpenDJ servers remembering to use fully qualified host names everywhere. • When using the setup tool to install and configure a server ensure that the -h option is included, and that it specifies the fully qualified host name. Make sure you include this option even if you are not enabling SSL/StartTLS LDAP connections (see OPENDJ-363). If you are using the GUI installer, then make sure you specify the fully qualified host name on the first page of the wizard. • When using the dsreplication tool to enable replication make sure that any --host options include the fully qualified host name. If you cannot reinstall the server, follow these steps. 1. Disable replication in each replica. $ dsreplication
disable
--disableAll
--hostname hostName
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--trustAll
--no-prompt
2. Stop and restart each server in order to clear the in-memory ADS trust store backend.

3. Enable replication making certain that fully qualified host names are used throughout

$dsreplication enable --adminUID admin --adminPassword password --baseDN dc=example,dc=com --host1 hostName1 --port1 adminPort1 --bindDN1 "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword1 password --replicationPort1 replPort1 --host2 hostName2 --port2 adminPort2 --bindDN2 "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword2 password --replicationPort2 replPort2 --trustAll --no-prompt 4. Repeat the previous step for each remaining replica. In other words, host1 with host2, host1 with host3, host1 with host4, ..., host1 with hostN. 5. Initialize all remaining replica with the data from host1. $ dsreplication
initialize-all
--baseDN dc=example,dc=com
--hostname hostName1
--port 4444
--trustAll
--no-prompt
6. Check that the host names are correct in the configuration and in the key stores by following the steps you used to check for host name problems. The only broken host name remaining should be in the key and trust stores for the administration connector.

$keytool -list -v -keystore config/admin-truststore -storepass cat config/admin-keystore.pin |grep "^Owner:" 7. Stop each server, and then fix the remaining admin connector certificate as described here in the procedure To Replace a Server Key Pair. ### 26.7.2. Handling Compromised Keys As explained in Changing Server Certificates, OpenDJ directory server has different keys and key stores for different purposes. The public keys used for replication are also used to encrypt shared secret symmetric keys for example to encrypt and to sign back ups. This section looks at what to do if either a key pair or secret key is compromised. How you deal with the problem depends on which key was compromised. • For a key pair used for a client connection handler and with a certificate signed by a certificate authority (CA), contact the CA for help. The CA might choose to publish a certificate revocation list (CRL) that identifies the certificate of the compromised key pair. Also make sure you replace the key pair. See To Replace a Server Key Pair for specific steps. • For a key pair used for a client connection handler and that has a self-signed certificate, follow the steps in To Replace a Server Key Pair, and make sure the clients remove the compromised certificate from their trust stores, updating those trust stores with the new certificate. • For a key pair that is used for replication, mark the key as compromised as described below, and replace the key pair. See To Replace a Server Key Pair for specific steps. To mark the key pair as compromised, follow these steps. 1. Identity the key entry by searching administrative data on the server whose key was compromised. The server in this example is installed on opendj.example.com with administration port 4444. $ ldapsearch
--port 1389
--hostname opendj.example.com
"(cn=opendj.example.com:4444)" ds-cfg-key-id
ds-cfg-key-id: 4F2F97979A7C05162CF64C9F73AF66ED

The key ID, 4F2F97979A7C05162CF64C9F73AF66ED, is the RDN of the key entry.

2. Mark the key as compromised by adding the attribute, ds-cfg-key-compromised-time, to the key entry.

The attribute has generalized time syntax, and so takes as its value the time at which the key was compromised expressed in generalized time. In the following example, the key pair was compromised at 8:34 AM UTC on March 21, 2013.

$ldapmodify --port 1389 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword password dn: ds-cfg-key-id=4F2F97979A7C05162CF64C9F73AF66ED,cn=instance keys,cn=admin data changetype: modify add: ds-cfg-key-compromised-time ds-cfg-key-compromised-time: 201303210834Z Processing MODIFY request for ds-cfg-key-id=4F2F97979A7C05162CF64C9F73AF66ED, cn=instance keys,cn=admin data MODIFY operation successful for DN ds-cfg-key-id=4F2F97979A7C05162CF64C9F73AF66ED ,cn=instance keys,cn=admin data 3. If the server uses encrypted or signed data, then the shared secret keys used for encryption or signing and associated with the compromised key pair should also be considered compromised. Therefore, mark all shared secret keys encrypted with the instance key as compromised. To identify the shared secret keys, find the list of secret keys in the administrative data whose ds-cfg-symmetric-key starts with the key ID of the compromised key. $ ldapsearch
--port 1389
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
"(ds-cfg-symmetric-key=4F2F97979A7C05162CF64C9F73AF66ED*)" dn
ata

ata

ata

For each such key, mark the entry with ds-cfg-key-compromised-time as shown above for the instance key.

Changes to administration data are replicated to other OpenDJ servers in the replication topology.

• For a shared secret key used for data encryption that has been compromised, mark the key entry with ds-cfg-key-compromised-time as shown in the example above that demonstrates marking the instance key as compromised.

Again, changes to administration data are replicated to other OpenDJ servers in the replication topology.

## 26.8. Troubleshooting Client Operations

By default OpenDJ logs information about all LDAP client operations in logs/access, and all HTTP client operations in logs/http-access. The following lines are wrapped for readability, showing a search for the entry with uid=bjensen as traced in the LDAP access log. In the access log itself, each line starts with a time stamp.

[27/Jun/2011:17:23:00 +0200] CONNECT conn=19 from=127.0.0.1:56641
to=127.0.0.1:1389 protocol=LDAP
[27/Jun/2011:17:23:00 +0200] SEARCH REQ conn=19 op=0 msgID=1
base="dc=example,dc=com" scope=wholeSubtree filter="(uid=bjensen)" attrs="ALL"
[27/Jun/2011:17:23:00 +0200] SEARCH RES conn=19 op=0 msgID=1
result=0 nentries=1 etime=3
[27/Jun/2011:17:23:00 +0200] UNBIND REQ conn=19 op=1 msgID=2
[27/Jun/2011:17:23:00 +0200] DISCONNECT conn=19 reason="Client Unbind"

As you see, each client connection and set of LDAP operations are traced, starting with a time stamp and information about the operation performed, then including information about the connection, the operation number for the sequence of operations performed by the client, a message identification number, and additional information about the operation.

To match HTTP client operations with related internal server operations, first prevent OpenDJ from suppressing internal operations from the LDAP access log by using the dsconfig command to set the LDAP access log publisher suppress-internal-operations advanced property to false. Then match the values of the x-connection-id field in the HTTP access log with conn=id values in the LDAP access log.

For example, consider an HTTP GET request for the _id field of the user newuser, which is handled by connection 4 as shown in logs/http-access.

-  192.168.0.12  bjensen  22/May/2013:16:27:52 +0200
GET  /users/newuser?_fields=_id  HTTP/1.1  200
curl/7.21.4  4  12

With internal operations logged in logs/access, log lines for the related operations have conn=4.

[22/May/2013:16:27:52 +0200] CONNECT conn=4
from=192.168.0.12:63593 to=192.168.0.12:8080 protocol=HTTP/1.1
[22/May/2013:16:27:52 +0200] SEARCH REQ conn=4
op=0 msgID=0 base="ou=people,dc=example,dc=com" scope=wholeSubtree
filter="(&(objectClass=inetOrgPerson)(uid=bjensen))" attrs="1.1"
[22/May/2013:16:27:52 +0200] SEARCH RES conn=4
op=0 msgID=0 result=0 nentries=1 etime=5
[22/May/2013:16:27:52 +0200] BIND REQ conn=4
op=1 msgID=1 version=3 type=SIMPLE
dn="uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com"
[22/May/2013:16:27:52 +0200] BIND RES conn=4
op=1 msgID=1 result=0 authDN="uid=bjensen,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com"
etime=3
[22/May/2013:16:27:52 +0200] SEARCH REQ conn=4
op=2 msgID=2 base="uid=newuser,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com" scope=baseObject
filter="(objectClass=*)" attrs="uid,etag"
[22/May/2013:16:27:52 +0200] SEARCH RES conn=4
op=2 msgID=2 result=0 nentries=1 etime=4
[22/May/2013:16:27:52 +0200] UNBIND REQ conn=4
op=3 msgID=3
[22/May/2013:16:27:52 +0200] DISCONNECT conn=4
reason="Client Unbind"

To help diagnose errors due to access permissions, OpenDJ supports the get effective rights control. The control OID, 1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.27.9.5.2, is not allowed by the default global ACIs. You must therefore add access to use the get effective rights control when not using it as Directory Manager.

### 26.8.1. Clients Need Simple Paged Results Control

For Solaris and some versions of Linux you might see a message in the OpenDJ access logs such as the following.

The request control with Object Identifier (OID) "1.2.840.113556.1.4.319"
cannot be used due to insufficient access rights

This message means clients are trying to use the simple paged results control without authenticating. By default, OpenDJ includes a global ACI to allow only authenticated users to use the control.

$dsconfig --port 4444 --hostname opendj.example.com --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" --bindPassword "password" get-access-control-handler-prop Property : Value(s) -----------:------------------------------------------------------------------- enabled : true global-aci : (extop="1.3.6.1.4.1.26027.1.6.1 || 1.3.6.1.4.1.26027.1.6.3 || ... : (targetcontrol="1.3.6.1.1.12 || 1.3.6.1.1.13.1 || 1.3.6.1.1.13.2 : || 1.2.840.113556.1.4.319 || 1.2.826.0.1.3344810.2.3 || : 2.16.840.1.113730.3.4.18 || 2.16.840.1.113730.3.4.9 || : 1.2.840.113556.1.4.473 || 1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.27.9.5.9") (version : 3.0; acl "Authenticated users control access"; allow(read) : userdn="ldap:///all";), (targetcontrol="2.16.840.1.113730.3.4.2 || : 2.16.840.1.113730.3.4.17 || 2.16.840.1.113730.3.4.19 || : 1.3.6.1.4.1.4203.1.10.2 || 1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.27.8.5.1 || : 2.16.840.1.113730.3.4.16") (version 3.0; acl "Anonymous control : access"; allow(read) userdn="ldap:///anyone";) To grant anonymous (unauthenticated) user access to the control, add the OID for the simple paged results control to the list of those in the Anonymous control access global ACI. $ dsconfig
--port 4444
--hostname opendj.example.com
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
set-access-control-handler-prop
--remove global-aci:"(targetcontrol=\"2.16.840.1.113730.3.4.2 ||
2.16.840.1.113730.3.4.17 || 2.16.840.1.113730.3.4.19 ||
1.3.6.1.4.1.4203.1.10.2 || 1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.27.8.5.1 ||
2.16.840.1.113730.3.4.16\") (version 3.0; acl \"Anonymous control access\";
2.16.840.1.113730.3.4.17 || 2.16.840.1.113730.3.4.19 ||
1.3.6.1.4.1.4203.1.10.2 || 1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.27.8.5.1 ||
2.16.840.1.113730.3.4.16 || 1.2.840.113556.1.4.319\")
(version 3.0; acl \"Anonymous control access\"; allow(read)
userdn=\"ldap:///anyone\";)"
--no-prompt

Alternatively, stop OpenDJ, edit the corresponding ACI carefully in /path/to/opendj/config/config.ldif, and restart OpenDJ. [20]

## 26.9. Troubleshooting Replication

Replication can generally recover from conflicts and transient issues. Replication does, however, require that update operations be copied from server to server. It is therefore possible to experience temporary delays while replicas converge, especially when the write operation load is heavy. OpenDJ's tolerance for temporary divergence between replicas is what allows OpenDJ to remain available to serve client applications even when networks linking the replicas go down.

In other words, the fact that directory services are loosely convergent rather than transactional is a feature, not a bug.

That said, you may encounter errors. Replication uses its own error log file, logs/replication. Error messages in the log file have category=SYNC. The messages have the following form. Here the line is folded for readability.

[27/Jun/2011:14:37:48 +0200] category=SYNC severity=INFORMATION msgID=14680169
msg=Replication server accepted a connection from 10.10.0.10/10.10.0.10:52859
to local address 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0:8989 but the SSL handshake failed. This is
probably benign, but may indicate a transient network outage or a
misconfigured client application connecting to this replication server.
The error was: Remote host closed connection during handshake

OpenDJ maintains historical information about changes in order to bring replicas up to date, and to resolve replication conflicts. To prevent historical information from growing without limit, OpenDJ purges historical information after a configurable delay (replication-purge-delay, default: 3 days). A replica can become irrevocably out of sync if you restore it from a backup archive older than the purge delay, or if you stop it for longer than the purge delay. If this happens to you, disable the replica, and then reinitialize it from a recent backup or from a server that is up to date.

When you cannot resolve a problem yourself, and want to ask for help, clearly identify the problem and how you reproduce it, and also the version of OpenDJ you use to reproduce the problem. The version includes both a version number and also a build time stamp.

$dsconfig --version OpenDJ 2.7.0-SNAPSHOT Build yyyymmddhhmmssZ Be ready to provide additional information, too. • The output from the java -version command. • access and errors logs showing what the server was doing when the problem started occurring • A copy of the server configuration file, config/config.ldif, in use when the problem started occurring • Other relevant logs or output, such as those from client applications experiencing the problem • A description of the environment where OpenDJ is running, including system characteristics, host names, IP addresses, Java versions, storage characteristics, and network characteristics. This helps to understand the logs, and other information. [20] Unlike the dsconfig command, the config.ldif file is not a public interface, so this alternative should not be used in production. # Tools Reference You can find tools under the folder where you installed OpenDJ directory server as listed in Command-Line Tools. Table of Contents backup — back up OpenDJ directory data base64 — encode and decode base64 strings control-panel — start the OpenDJ graphical admin interface create-rc-script — script to manage OpenDJ as a service on UNIX dbtest — gather OpenDJ JE database debugging information dsconfig — manage OpenDJ directory server configuration dsframework — manage OpenDJ administration framework dsjavaproperties — apply OpenDJ Java home and JVM settings dsreplication — manage OpenDJ directory data replication encode-password — encode a password with an OpenDJ storage scheme export-ldif — export OpenDJ directory data in LDIF import-ldif — import OpenDJ directory data from LDIF ldapcompare — perform LDAP compare operations ldapdelete — perform LDAP delete operations ldapmodify — perform LDAP modify, add, delete, mod DN operations ldappasswordmodify — perform LDAP password modifications ldapsearch — perform LDAP search operations ldif-diff — compare small LDIF files ldifmodify — apply LDIF changes to LDIF ldifsearch — search LDIF with LDAP filters list-backends — list OpenDJ backends and base DNs make-ldif — generate test LDIF make-ldif.template — template file for the make-ldif command manage-account — manage state of directory server accounts manage-tasks — manage OpenDJ server administration tasks rebuild-index — rebuild index after configuration change restore — restore OpenDJ directory data backups setup — install OpenDJ directory server start-ds — start OpenDJ directory server status — display basic OpenDJ server information stop-ds — stop OpenDJ directory server uninstall — remove OpenDJ directory server software upgrade — upgrade OpenDJ configuration & application data verify-index — check index for consistency or errors windows-service — register OpenDJ as a Windows Service ## Name backup — back up OpenDJ directory data ## Synopsis backup {options} ## Description This utility can be used to back up one or more directory server backends. ## Options The following options are supported. -a, --backUpAll Back up all backends in the server -A, --hash Generate a hash of the backup contents -B, --incrementalBaseID {backupID} Backup ID of the source archive for an incremental backup. -c, --compress Compress the backup content -d, --backupDirectory {backupDir} Path to the target directory for the backup file(s) -i, --incremental Perform an incremental backup rather than a full backup -I, --backupID {backupID} Use the provided identifier for the backup -n, --backendID {backendName} Backend ID for the backend to archive -s, --signHash Sign the hash of the backup contents -y, --encrypt Encrypt the backup contents ### Task Backend Connection Options --connectTimeout {timeout} Maximum length of time (in milliseconds) that can be taken to establish a connection. Use '0' to specify no time out. Default value: 30000 -D, --bindDN {bindDN} DN to use to bind to the server Default value: cn=Directory Manager -h, --hostname {host} Directory server hostname or IP address Default value: localhost.localdomain -j, --bindPasswordFile {bindPasswordFile} Bind password file -K, --keyStorePath {keyStorePath} Certificate key store path -N, --certNickname {nickname} Nickname of certificate for SSL client authentication -o, --saslOption {name=value} SASL bind options -p, --port {port} Directory server administration port number Default value: 4444 -P, --trustStorePath {trustStorePath} Certificate trust store path -T, --trustStorePassword {trustStorePassword} Certificate trust store PIN -u, --keyStorePasswordFile {keyStorePasswordFile} Certificate key store PIN file -U, --trustStorePasswordFile {path} Certificate trust store PIN file -w, --bindPassword {bindPassword} Password to use to bind to the server Use -w - to have the command prompt for the password, rather than enter the password on the command line. -W, --keyStorePassword {keyStorePassword} Certificate key store PIN -X, --trustAll Trust all server SSL certificates ### Task Scheduling Options --completionNotify {emailAddress} Email address of a recipient to be notified when the task completes. This option may be specified more than once. --dependency {taskID} ID of a task upon which this task depends. A task will not start execution until all its dependencies have completed execution. --errorNotify {emailAddress} Email address of a recipient to be notified if an error occurs when this task executes. This option may be specified more than once. --failedDependencyAction {action} Action this task will take should one if its dependent tasks fail. The value must be one of PROCESS, CANCEL, DISABLE. If not specified defaults to CANCEL. --recurringTask {schedulePattern} Indicates the task is recurring and will be scheduled according to the value argument expressed in crontab(5) compatible time/date pattern. -t, --start {startTime} Indicates the date/time at which this operation will start when scheduled as a server task expressed in YYYYMMDDhhmmssZ format for UTC time or YYYYMMDDhhmmss for local time. A value of '0' will cause the task to be scheduled for immediate execution. When this option is specified the operation will be scheduled to start at the specified time after which this utility will exit immediately. ### Utility Input/Output Options --noPropertiesFile No properties file will be used to get default command line argument values --propertiesFilePath {propertiesFilePath} Path to the file containing default property values used for command line arguments ### General Options -V, --version Display version information -?, -H, --help Display usage information ## Exit Codes 0 The command completed successfully. 1 An error occurred while parsing the command-line arguments. ## Examples The following example backs up all user data while the server is online. $ backup -p 4444 -D "cn=Directory Manager" -w password
-a -d /path/to/opendj/bak -t 0
Backup task 20110613143801866 scheduled to start Jun 13, 2011 2:38:01 PM CEST

The following example schedules back up of all user data every night at 2 AM when the server is online, and notifies diradmin@example.com when finished, or on error.

$backup -p 4444 -D "cn=Directory Manager" -w password -a -d /path/to/opendj/bak --recurringTask "00 02 * * *" --completionNotify diradmin@example.com --errorNotify diradmin@example.com Recurring Backup task BackupTask-988d6adf-4d65-44bf-8546-6ea74a2480b0 scheduled successfully The following example backs up all user data while the server is offline. $ stop-ds
Stopping Server...
...
$backup --backupAll --backupDirectory /path/to/opendj/bak ... [28/Sep/2012:12:14:22 +0200] ... msg=The backup process completed successfully$ start-ds
[28/Sep/2012:12:15:48 +0200] ... The Directory Server has started successfully


## Name

base64 — encode and decode base64 strings

## Synopsis

base64 subcommand {options}

## Description

This utility can be used to encode and decode information using base64.

## Subcommands

The following subcommands are supported.

base64 decode

Decode base64-encoded information into raw data

When no options are specified, this subcommand reads from standard input and writes to standard output.

Decode Options
-d, --encodedData {data}

The base64-encoded data to be decoded

-f, --encodedDataFile {path}

The path to a file containing the base64-encoded data to be decoded

-o, --toRawFile {path}

The path to a file to which the raw base64-decoded data should be written

base64 encode

Encode raw data using base64

When no options are specified, this subcommand reads from standard input and writes to standard output.

Decode Options
-d, --rawData {data}

The raw data to be base64 encoded

-f, --rawDataFile {path}

The path to a file containing the raw data to be base64 encoded

-o, --toEncodedFile {path}

The path to a file to which the base64-encoded data should be written

## General Options

-V, --version

Display version information

-?, -H, --help

Display usage information

## Exit Codes

0

The command completed successfully.

> 0

An error occurred.

## Name

create-rc-script — script to manage OpenDJ as a service on UNIX

## Synopsis

create-rc-script {options}

## Description

Create an RC script that may be used to start, stop, and restart the directory server on UNIX-based systems.

## Options

The following options are supported.

-f, --outputFile {path}

The path to the output file to create.

-j, --javaHome {path}

The path to the Java installation that should be used to run the server.

-J, --javaArgs {args}

A set of arguments that should be passed to the JVM when running the server.

-u, --userName {userName}

The name of the user account under which the server should run.

### General Options

--version

Display version information

-?, -H, --help

Display usage information

## Exit Codes

0

The command completed successfully.

> 0

An error occurred.

## Examples

The following example adds a script to start OpenDJ at boot time on a Debian-based system, and then updates the runlevel system to use the script.

$sudo create-rc-script -f /etc/init.d/opendj -u mark$ sudo update-rc.d opendj

## Name

dbtest — gather OpenDJ JE database debugging information

## Synopsis

dbtest
subcommand [options]

## Description

This utility can be used to debug the JE database.

## Subcommands

The following subcommands are supported.

dbtest dump-database-container

Dump records from a database container

Depending on database size, this subcommand can generate lots of output.

dbtest list-database-containers

List the database containers for an entry container

dbtest list-entry-containers

List the entry containers for a root container

dbtest list-index-status

List the status of indexes in an entry container

When you list index status, the result is a table, followed by a "Total", which is the total number of indexes, followed by a list of indexes with "Undefined keys" to show the values for which the number of entries exceeded the index entry limit. The table has the following columns.

Index Name

Name of the index, which takes the form attr.type for attribute indexes, and vlv.name for VLV indexes. Some indexes are for OpenDJ directory server's internal use.

Example: givenName.substring

Index Type

Type of the index, which is Index for attribute indexes, and VLVIndex for VLV indexes.

JE Database Name

Name of the Berkeley Java Edition database, which reflects how OpenDJ directory server organizes the data in the database.

Example: dc_example_dc_com_givenName.substring

Index Valid

This is true for valid indexes. If this is false, the index might be degraded. Verify the index, and rebuild the index if necessary.

Record Count

Number of indexed keys. Use the dbtest dump-database-container command to see how many entry IDs correspond to each key.

Undefined

Number of keys for which there are too many values to maintain an index, based on the index entry limit. This is recorded as - for VLV indexes.

In other words, with the default index entry limit of 4000, if every user in your large directory has a mail address ending in @example.com, and a substring index is maintained for mail, then OpenDJ directory server does not maintain indexes for keys corresponding to substrings in @example.com.

As a result, an LDAP search with the filter "(mail=*@example.com)" becomes an unindexed search even though a substring index exists for the mail attribute. By default OpenDJ directory server does not allow unindexed searches except by privileged users. This is usually exactly the behavior you want in order to prevent client applications for example from sending searches that return every user in the directory. Clients should refine their search filters instead.

95%, 90%, 85%

Number of keys for which the number of values is approaching the index entry limit, having reached the specified percentage. This is a measure of how full the entry ID lists are.

dbtest list-root-containers

List the root containers used by all JE backends

## Options

The following global options are supported.

For other options, see dbtest subcommand --help.

--version

Display version information

-?, -H, --help

Display usage information

## Exit Codes

0

The command completed successfully.

> 0

An error occurred.

## Examples

The following example displays debugging information about the equality index for sudoUser.

$dbtest dump-database-container -n userRoot -b dc=example,dc=com -d sudoUser.equality Indexed Value (6 bytes): %admin Entry ID List (8 bytes): 165 Indexed Value (5 bytes): %sudo Entry ID List (8 bytes): 164 Indexed Value (4 bytes): root Entry ID List (8 bytes): 163 Total Records: 3 Total / Average Key Size: 13 bytes / 4 bytes Total / Average Data Size: 24 bytes / 8 bytes ## Name dsconfig — manage OpenDJ directory server configuration ## Synopsis dsconfig [subcommand] [options] ## Description This utility serves to configure a running directory server. The dsconfig command is the primary command-line tool for viewing and editing OpenDJ configuration. When started without arguments, dsconfig prompts you for administration connection information, including the host name, administration port number, administrator bind DN and administrator password. The dsconfig command then connects securely to the directory server over the administration port. Once connected it presents you with a menu-driven interface to the server configuration. When you pass connection information, subcommands, and additional options to dsconfig, the command runs in script mode and so is not interactive, though it can prompt you to ask whether to apply changes and whether to trust certificates (unless you use the --no-prompt and --trustAll options, respectively). You can prepare dsconfig batch scripts by running the tool with the --commandFilePath option in interactive mode, then reading from the batch file with the --batchFile option in script mode. Batch files can be useful when you have many dsconfig commands to run and want to avoid starting the JVM and setting up a new connection for each command. The dsconfig command categorizes directory server configuration into components, also called managed objects. Actual components often inherit from a parent component type. For example, one component is a Connection Handler. An LDAP Connection Handler is a type of Connection Handler. You configure the LDAP Connection Handler component to specify how OpenDJ directory server handles LDAP connections coming from client applications. Configuration components have properties. For example, the LDAP Connection Handler component has properties such as listen-port and allow-start-tls. You can set the component's listen-port property to 389 to use the default LDAP port number. You can set the component's allow-start-tls property to true to permit LDAP client applications to use StartTLS. Much of the configuration you do with dsconfig involves setting component properties. The OpenDJ Configuration Reference covers all dsconfig component properties in detail, drawing on the documentation you also view when getting help through the dsconfig command. ## Getting Help The dsconfig command provides many subcommands. Use the following options to view help for subcommands. See dsconfig Subcommands for details of individual subcommands. dsconfig --help-all Display all subcommands dsconfig --help-core-server Display subcommands relating to core server dsconfig --help-database Display subcommands relating to caching and back-ends dsconfig --help-logging Display subcommands relating to logging dsconfig --help-replication Display subcommands relating to replication dsconfig --help-security Display subcommands relating to authentication and authorization dsconfig --help-user-management Display subcommands relating to user management For help with individual subcommands, either use dsconfig subcommand --help, or start dsconfig in interactive mode, without specifying a subcommand. To view component properties, use the dsconfig list-properties command. ## Generally Applicable Options The following options are supported for all dsconfig subcommands. --advanced Allows the configuration of advanced components and properties ### LDAP Connection Options --connectTimeout {timeout} Maximum length of time (in milliseconds) that can be taken to establish a connection. Use '0' to specify no time out. Default value: 30000 -h, --hostname {host} Directory server hostname or IP address Default value: localhost.localdomain -I, --adminUID {adminUID} User ID of the global administrator to use to bind to the server. For the enable subcommand, if no global administrator was defined previously for any servers, the global administrator will be created using the UID provided. Default value: admin -j, --adminPasswordFile {bindPasswordFile} Global administrator password file -K, --keyStorePath {keyStorePath} Certificate key store path -N, --certNickname {nickname} Nickname of certificate for SSL client authentication -o, --saslOption {name=value} SASL bind options -p, --port {port} Directory server administration port number Default value: 4444 -P, --trustStorePath {trustStorePath} Certificate trust store path Default value: /path/to/opendj/config/admin-truststore -T, --trustStorePassword {trustStorePassword} Certificate trust store PIN -u, --keyStorePasswordFile {keyStorePasswordFile} Certificate key store PIN file -U, --trustStorePasswordFile {path} Certificate trust store PIN file -w, --adminPassword {bindPassword} Password for the global administrator -W, --keyStorePassword {keyStorePassword} Certificate key store PIN -X, --trustAll Trust all server SSL certificates ### Utility Input/Output Options --commandFilePath {path} The full path to the file where the equivalent non-interactive commands will be written when this command is run in interactive mode. --displayCommand Display the equivalent non-interactive option on standard output when this command is run in interactive mode. -F, --batchFilePath {batchFilePath} Path to a batch file containing a set of dsconfig commands to be executed -n, --no-prompt Use non-interactive mode. If data in the command is missing, the user is not prompted and the command exits with an error. --noPropertiesFile No properties file will be used to get default command line argument values --propertiesFilePath {propertiesFilePath} Path to the file containing default property values used for command line arguments -Q, --quiet Do not write progress information to standard output -s, --script-friendly Use script-friendly mode -v, --verbose Use verbose mode ### General Options --version Display version information -?, -H, --help Display usage information ## dsconfig Subcommands This section covers individual dsconfig subcommands. Subcommands let you create, list, and delete entire configuration components, and also let you get and set component properties. Subcommands therefore have names that reflect these five actions. • create-component • list-components • delete-component • get-component-prop • set-component-prop Here, component names correspond to the names of managed object types referred to as Components in the OpenDJ Configuration Reference, and that have no parent components. (In other words, only the names of components with no parents correspond to subcommands.) Subcommand component names are lower-case, hyphenated versions of the friendly names used in the OpenDJ Configuration Reference. When you act on an actual configuration component, you provide the name of the component as an option argument. For example, the Log Publisher component has these corresponding subcommands. • create-log-publisher • list-log-publishers • delete-log-publisher • get-log-publisher-prop • set-log-publisher-prop When you create or delete Log Publisher components and when you get and set their configuration properties, you provide the name of the actual log publisher, which you can find by using the list-log-publishers subcommand. $ dsconfig
list-log-publishers
--hostname opendj.example.com
--port 4444
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--trustAll

Log Publisher                 : Type                   : enabled
------------------------------:------------------------:--------
File-Based Access Logger      : file-based-access      : true
File-Based Audit Logger       : file-based-audit       : false
File-Based Debug Logger       : file-based-debug       : false
File-Based Error Logger       : file-based-error       : true
File-Based HTTP Access Logger : file-based-http-access : false
Replication Repair Logger     : file-based-error       : true

\$ dsconfig
get-log-publisher-prop
--publisher-name "File-Based Access Logger"
--property rotation-policy
--hostname opendj.example.com
--port 4444
--bindDN "cn=Directory Manager"
--trustAll
Property        : Value(s)
----------------:--------------------------------------------------------------
rotation-policy : 24 Hours Time Limit Rotation Policy, Size Limit Rotation
: Policy

To find documentation for specific component properties, also see the OpenDJ Configuration Reference.

Many subcommands let you set property values. Notice in the reference for the subcommands below that specific options are available for handling multi-valued properties. Whereas you can assign a single property value using the --set option, you assign multiple values to a multi-valued property using the --add option. You can reset the values of the multi-valued property using the --reset option.

Some property values take a time duration. Durations are expressed as numbers followed by units. For example 1 s means one second, and 2 w means two weeks. Some durations have minimum granularity or maximum units, so you cannot necessary specify every duration in milliseconds or weeks for example. Some durations allow you to use a special value to mean unlimited. Units are specified as follows.

• ms: milliseconds

• s: seconds

• m: minutes

• h: hours

• d: days

• w: weeks

### dsconfig create-access-log-filtering-criteria

Creates Access Log Filtering Criteria

--publisher-name {name}

The name of the Access Log Publisher

--criteria-name {name}

The name of the new Access Log Filtering Criteria

--set {PROP:VALUE}

Assigns a value to a property where PROP is the name of the property and VALUE is the single value to be assigned. Specify the same property multiple times in order to assign more than one value to it

-t | --type {type}

The type of Access Log Filtering Criteria which should be created (Default: generic). The value for TYPE can be one of: generic

--handler-name {name}

The name of the new Account Status Notification Handler

--set {PROP:VALUE}

Assigns a value to a property where PROP is the name of the property and VALUE is the single value to be assigned. Specify the same property multiple times in order to assign more than one value to it

-t | --type {type}

The type of Account Status Notification Handler which should be created. The value for TYPE can be one of: custom | error-log | smtp

--handler-name {name}

The name of the new Alert Handler

--set {PROP:VALUE}

Assigns a value to a property where PROP is the name of the property and VALUE is the single value to be assigned. Specify the same property multiple times in order to assign more than one value to it

-t | --type {type}

The type of Alert Handler which should be created. The value for TYPE can be one of: custom | jmx | smtp

### dsconfig create-attribute-syntax

Creates Attribute Syntaxes

--syntax-name {name}

The name of the new Attribute Syntax

--set {PROP:VALUE}

Assigns a value to a property where PROP is the name of the property and VALUE is the single value to be assigned. Specify the same property multiple times in order to assign more than one value to it

-t | --type {type}

The type of Attribute Syntax which should be created (Default: generic). The value for TYPE can be one of: attribute-type-description | certificate | country-string | directory-string | generic | jpeg | telephone-number

### dsconfig create-backend

Creates Backends

--backend-name {STRING}

The name of the new Backend which will also be used as the value of the "backend-id" property: Specifies a name to identify the associated backend.

--set {PROP:VALUE}

Assigns a value to a property where PROP is the name of the property and VALUE is the single value to be assigned. Specify the same property multiple times in order to assign more than one value to it

-t | --type {type}

The type of Backend which should be created. The value for TYPE can be one of: backup | config-file-handler | custom | ldif | local-db | memory | monitor | null | schema | task | trust-store

### dsconfig create-certificate-mapper

Creates Certificate Mappers

--mapper-name {name}

The name of the new Certificate Mapper

--set {PROP:VALUE}

Assigns a value to a property where PROP is the name of the property and VALUE is the single value to be assigned. Specify the same property multiple times in order to assign more than one value to it

-t | --type {type}

The type of Certificate Mapper which should be created. The value for TYPE can be one of: custom | fingerprint | subject-attribute-to-user-attribute | subject-dn-to-user-attribute | subject-equals-dn

### dsconfig create-connection-handler

Creates Connection Handlers

--handler-name {name}

The name of the new Connection Handler

--set {PROP:VALUE}

Assigns a value to a property where PROP is the name of the property and VALUE is the single value to be assigned. Specify the same property multiple times in order to assign more than one value to it

-t | --type {type}

The type of Connection Handler which should be created. The value for TYPE can be one of: custom | http | jmx | ldap | ldif | snmp

### dsconfig create-debug-target

Creates Debug Targets

--publisher-name {name}

The name of the Debug Log Publisher

--target-name {STRING}

The name of the new Debug Target which will also be used as the value of the "debug-scope" property: Specifies the fully-qualified OpenDJ Java package, class, or method affected by the settings in this target definition. Use the number character (#) to separate the class name and the method name (that is, org.opends.server.core.DirectoryServer#startUp).

--set {PROP:VALUE}

Assigns a value to a property where PROP is the name of the property and VALUE is the single value to be assigned. Specify the same property multiple times in order to assign more than one value to it

-t | --type {type}

The type of Debug Target which should be created (Default: generic). The value for TYPE can be one of: generic

### dsconfig create-entry-cache

Creates Entry Caches

--cache-name {name}

The name of the new Entry Cache

--set {PROP:VALUE}

Assigns a value to a property where PROP is the name of the property and VALUE is the single value to be assigned. Specify the same property multiple times in order to assign more than one value to it

-t | --type {type}

The type of Entry Cache which should be created. The value for TYPE can be one of: custom | fifo | file-system | soft-reference

### dsconfig create-extended-operation-handler

Creates Extended Operation Handlers

--handler-name {name}

The name of the new Extended Operation Handler

--set {PROP:VALUE}

Assigns a value to a property where PROP is the name of the property and VALUE is the single value to be assigned. Specify the same property multiple times in order to assign more than one value to it

-t | --type {type}

The type of Extended Operation Handler which should be created. The value for TYPE can be one of: cancel | custom | get-connection-id | get-symmetric-key | password-modify | password-policy-state | start-tls | who-am-i

### dsconfig create-group-implementation

Creates Group Implementations

--implementation-name {name}

The name of the new Group Implementation

--set {PROP:VALUE}

Assigns a value to a property where PROP is the name of the property and VALUE is the single value to be assigned. Specify the same property multiple times in order to assign more than one value to it

-t | --type {type}

The type of Group Implementation which should be created. The value for TYPE can be one of: custom | dynamic | static | virtual-static

### dsconfig create-identity-mapper

Creates Identity Mappers

--mapper-name {name}

The name of the new Identity Mapper

--set {PROP:VALUE}

Assigns a value to a property where PROP is the name of the property and VALUE is the single value to be assigned. Specify the same property multiple times in order to assign more than one value to it

-t | --type {type}

The type of Identity Mapper which should be created. The value for TYPE can be one of: custom | exact-match | regular-expression

### dsconfig create-key-manager-provider

Creates Key Manager Providers

--provider-name {name}

The name of the new Key Manager Provider

--set {PROP:VALUE}

Assigns a value to a property where PROP is the name of the property and VALUE is the single value to be assigned. Specify the same property multiple times in order to assign more than one value to it

-t | --type {type}

The type of Key Manager Provider which should be created. The value for TYPE can be one of: custom | file-based | pkcs11

### dsconfig create-local-db-index

Creates Local DB Indexes

--backend-name {name}

The name of the Local DB Backend

--index-name {OID}

The name of the new Local DB Index which will also be used as the value of the "attribute" property: Specifies the name of the attribute for which the index is to be maintained.

--set {PROP:VALUE}

Assigns a value to a property where PROP is the name of the property and VALUE is the single value to be assigned. Specify the same property multiple times in order to assign more than one value to it

-t | --type {type}

The type of Local DB Index which should be created (Default: generic). The value for TYPE can be one of: generic

### dsconfig create-local-db-vlv-index

Creates Local DB VLV Indexes

--backend-name {name}

The name of the Local DB Backend

--index-name {STRING}

The name of the new Local DB VLV Index which will also be used as the value of the "name" property: Specifies a unique name for this VLV index.

--set {PROP:VALUE}

Assigns a value to a property where PROP is the name of the property and VALUE is the single value to be assigned. Specify the same property multiple times in order to assign more than one value to it

-t | --type {type}

The type of Local DB VLV Index which should be created (Default: generic). The value for TYPE can be one of: generic

### dsconfig create-log-publisher

Creates Log Publishers

--publisher-name {name}

The name of the new Log Publisher

--set {PROP:VALUE}

Assigns a value to a property where PROP is the name of the property and VALUE is the single value to be assigned. Specify the same property multiple times in order to assign more than one value to it

-t | --type {type}

The type of Log Publisher which should be created. The value for TYPE can be one of: custom-access | custom-debug | custom-error | custom-http-access | file-based-access | file-based-audit | file-based-debug | file-based-error | file-based-http-access

### dsconfig create-log-retention-policy

Creates Log Retention Policies

--policy-name {name}

The name of the new Log Retention Policy

--set {PROP:VALUE}

Assigns a value to a property where PROP is the name of the property and VALUE is the single value to be assigned. Specify the same property multiple times in order to assign more than one value to it

-t | --type {type}

The type of Log Retention Policy which should be created. The value for TYPE can be one of: custom | file-count | free-disk-space | size-limit

### dsconfig create-log-rotation-policy

Creates Log Rotation Policies

--policy-name {name}

The name of the new Log Rotation Policy

--set {PROP:VALUE}

Assigns a value to a property where PROP is the name of the property and VALUE is the single value to be assigned. Specify the same property multiple times in order to assign more than one value to it

-t | --type {type}

The type of Log Rotation Policy which should be created. The value for TYPE can be one of: custom | fixed-time | size-limit | time-limit

### dsconfig create-matching-rule

Creates Matching Rules

--rule-name {name}

The name of the new Matching Rule

--set {PROP:VALUE}

Assigns a value to a property where PROP is the name of the property and VALUE is the single value to be assigned. Specify the same property multiple times in order to assign more than one value to it

-t | --type {type}

The type of Matching Rule which should be created (Default: generic). The value for TYPE can be one of: collation | generic

### dsconfig create-monitor-provider

Creates Monitor Providers

--provider-name {name}

The name of the new Monitor Provider

--set {PROP:VALUE}

Assigns a value to a property where PROP is the name of the property and VALUE is the single value to be assigned. Specify the same property multiple times in order to assign more than one value to it

-t | --type {type}

The type of Monitor Provider which should be created. The value for TYPE can be one of: client-connection | custom | entry-cache | memory-usage | stack-trace | system-info | version

--generator-name {name}

The name of the new Password Generator

--set {PROP:VALUE}

Assigns a value to a property where PROP is the name of the property and VALUE is the single value to be assigned. Specify the same property multiple times in order to assign more than one value to it

-t | --type {type}

The type of Password Generator which should be created. The value for TYPE can be one of: custom | random

Creates Authentication Policies

--policy-name {name}

The name of the new Authentication Policy

--set {PROP:VALUE}

Assigns a value to a property where PROP is the name of the property and VALUE is the single value to be assigned. Specify the same property multiple times in order to assign more than one value to it

-t | --type {type}

The type of Authentication Policy which should be created. The value for TYPE can be one of: ldap-pass-through | password-policy

--scheme-name {name}

The name of the new Password Storage Scheme

--set {PROP:VALUE}

Assigns a value to a property where PROP is the name of the property and VALUE is the single value to be assigned. Specify the same property multiple times in order to assign more than one value to it

-t | --type {type}

The type of Password Storage Scheme which should be created. The value for TYPE can be one of: aes | base64 | blowfish | clear | crypt | custom | md5 | pbkdf2 | rc4 | salted-md5 | salted-sha1 | salted-sha256 | salted-sha384 | salted-sha512 | sha1 | triple-des

--validator-name {name}

The name of the new Password Validator

--set {PROP:VALUE}

Assigns a value to a property where PROP is the name of the property and VALUE is the single value to be assigned. Specify the same property multiple times in order to assign more than one value to it

-t | --type {type}

The type of Password Validator which should be created. The value for TYPE can be one of: attribute-value | character-set | custom | dictionary | length-based | repeated-characters | similarity-based | unique-characters

### dsconfig create-plugin

Creates Plugins

--plugin-name {name}

The name of the new Plugin

--set {PROP:VALUE}

Assigns a value to a property where PROP is the name of the property and VALUE is the single value to be assigned. Specify the same property multiple times in order to assign more than one value to it

-t | --type {type}

The type of Plugin which should be created. The value for TYPE can be one of: attribute-cleanup | change-number-control | custom | entry-uuid | fractional-ldif-import | last-mod | ldap-attribute-description-list | password-policy-import | profiler | referential-integrity | samba-password | seven-bit-clean | unique-attribute

### dsconfig create-replication-domain

Creates Replication Domains

--provider-name {name}

The name of the Replication Synchronization Provider

--domain-name {name}

The name of the new Replication Domain

--set {PROP:VALUE}

Assigns a value to a property where PROP is the name of the property and VALUE is the single value to be assigned. Specify the same property multiple times in order to assign more than one value to it

-t | --type {type}

The type of Replication Domain which should be created (Default: generic). The value for TYPE can be one of: generic

### dsconfig create-replication-server

Creates Replication Servers

--provider-name {name}

The name of the Replication Synchronization Provider

--set {PROP:VALUE}

Assigns a value to a property where PROP is the name of the property and VALUE is the single value to be assigned. Specify the same property multiple times in order to assign more than one value to it

-t | --type {type}

The type of Replication Server which should be created (Default: generic). The value for TYPE can be one of: generic

### dsconfig create-sasl-mechanism-handler

Creates SASL Mechanism Handlers

--handler-name {name}

The name of the new SASL Mechanism Handler

--set {PROP:VALUE}

Assigns a value to a property where PROP is the name of the property and VALUE is the single value to be assigned. Specify the same property multiple times in order to assign more than one value to it

-t | --type {type}

The type of SASL Mechanism Handler which should be created. The value for TYPE can be one of: anonymous | cram-md5 | custom | digest-md5 | external | gssapi | plain

### dsconfig create-synchronization-provider

Creates Synchronization Providers

--provider-name {name}

The name of the new Synchronization Provider

--set {PROP:VALUE}

Assigns a value to a property where PROP is the name of the property and VALUE is the single value to be assigned. Specify the same property multiple times in order to assign more than one value to it

-t | --type {type}

The type of Synchronization Provider which should be created. The value for TYPE can be one of: custom | replication

### dsconfig create-trust-manager-provider

Creates Trust Manager Providers

--provider-name {name}

The name of the new Trust Manager Provider

--set {PROP:VALUE}

Assigns a value to a property where PROP is the name of the property and VALUE is the single value to be assigned. Specify the same property multiple times in order to assign more than one value to it

-t | --type {type}

The type of Trust Manager Provider which should be created. The value for TYPE can be one of: blind | custom | file-based

### dsconfig create-virtual-attribute

Creates Virtual Attributes

--name {name}

The name of the new Virtual Attribute

--set {PROP:VALUE}

Assigns a value to a property where PROP is the name of the property and VALUE is the single value to be assigned. Specify the same property multiple times in order to assign more than one value to it

-t | --type {type}

The type of Virtual Attribute which should be created. The value for TYPE can be one of: collective-attribute-subentries | custom | entity-tag | entry-dn | entry-uuid | governing-structure-rule | has-subordinates | is-member-of | member | num-subordinates | password-expiration-time | password-policy-subentry | structural-object-class | subschema-subentry | user-defined

### dsconfig delete-access-log-filtering-criteria

Deletes Access Log Filtering Criteria

--publisher-name {name}

The name of the Access Log Publisher

--criteria-name {name}

The name of the Access Log Filtering Criteria

-f | --force

Ignore non-existent Access Log Filtering Criteria

--handler-name {name}

The name of the Account Status Notification Handler

-f | --force

Ignore non-existent Account Status Notification Handlers

--handler-name {name}

The name of the Alert Handler

-f | --force

### dsconfig delete-attribute-syntax

Deletes Attribute Syntaxes

--syntax-name {name}

The name of the Attribute Syntax

-f | --force

Ignore non-existent Attribute Syntaxes

### dsconfig delete-backend

Deletes Backends

--backend-name {name}

The name of the Backend

-f | --force

Ignore non-existent Backends

### dsconfig delete-certificate-mapper

Deletes Certificate Mappers

--mapper-name {name}

The name of the Certificate Mapper

-f | --force

Ignore non-existent Certificate Mappers

### dsconfig delete-connection-handler

Deletes Connection Handlers

--handler-name {name}

The name of the Connection Handler

-f | --force

Ignore non-existent Connection Handlers

### dsconfig delete-debug-target

Deletes Debug Targets

--publisher-name {name}

The name of the Debug Log Publisher

--target-name {name}

The name of the Debug Target

-f | --force

Ignore non-existent Debug Targets

### dsconfig delete-entry-cache

Deletes Entry Caches

--cache-name {name}

The name of the Entry Cache

-f | --force

Ignore non-existent Entry Caches

### dsconfig delete-extended-operation-handler

Deletes Extended Operation Handlers

--handler-name {name}

The name of the Extended Operation Handler

-f | --force

Ignore non-existent Extended Operation Handlers

### dsconfig delete-group-implementation

Deletes Group Implementations

--implementation-name {name}

The name of the Group Implementation

-f | --force

Ignore non-existent Group Implementations

### dsconfig delete-identity-mapper

Deletes Identity Mappers

--mapper-name {name}

The name of the Identity Mapper

-f | --force

Ignore non-existent Identity Mappers

### dsconfig delete-key-manager-provider

Deletes Key Manager Providers

--provider-name {name}

The name of the Key Manager Provider

-f | --force

Ignore non-existent Key Manager Providers

### dsconfig delete-local-db-index

Deletes Local DB Indexes

--backend-name {name}

The name of the Local DB Backend

--index-name {name}

The name of the Local DB Index

-f | --force

Ignore non-existent Local DB Indexes

### dsconfig delete-local-db-vlv-index

Deletes Local DB VLV Indexes

--backend-name {name}

The name of the Local DB Backend

--index-name {name}

The name of the Local DB VLV Index

-f | --force

Ignore non-existent Local DB VLV Indexes

### dsconfig delete-log-publisher

Deletes Log Publishers

--publisher-name {name}

The name of the Log Publisher

-f | --force

Ignore non-existent Log Publishers

### dsconfig delete-log-retention-policy

Deletes Log Retention Policies

--policy-name {name}

The name of the Log Retention Policy

-f | --force

Ignore non-existent Log Retention Policies

### dsconfig delete-log-rotation-policy

Deletes Log Rotation Policies

--policy-name {name}

The name of the Log Rotation Policy

-f | --force

Ignore non-existent Log Rotation Policies

### dsconfig delete-matching-rule

Deletes Matching Rules

--rule-name {name}

The name of the Matching Rule

-f | --force

Ignore non-existent Matching Rules

### dsconfig delete-monitor-provider

Deletes Monitor Providers

--provider-name {name}

The name of the Monitor Provider

-f | --force

Ignore non-existent Monitor Providers

--generator-name {name}

The name of the Password Generator

-f | --force

Deletes Authentication Policies

--policy-name {name}

The name of the Authentication Policy

-f | --force

Ignore non-existent Authentication Policies

--scheme-name {name}

The name of the Password Storage Scheme

-f | --force

--validator-name {name}

The name of the Password Validator

-f | --force

### dsconfig delete-plugin

Deletes Plugins

--plugin-name {name}

The name of the Plugin

-f | --force

Ignore non-existent Plugins

### dsconfig delete-replication-domain

Deletes Replication Domains

--provider-name {name}

The name of the Replication Synchronization Provider

--domain-name {name}

The name of the Replication Domain

-f | --force

Ignore non-existent Replication Domains

### dsconfig delete-replication-server

Deletes Replication Servers

--provider-name {name}

The name of the Replication Synchronization Provider

-f | --force

Ignore non-existent Replication Servers

### dsconfig delete-sasl-mechanism-handler

Deletes SASL Mechanism Handlers

--handler-name {name}

The name of the SASL Mechanism Handler

-f | --force

Ignore non-existent SASL Mechanism Handlers

### dsconfig delete-synchronization-provider

Deletes Synchronization Providers

--provider-name {name}

The name of the Synchronization Provider

-f | --force

Ignore non-existent Synchronization Providers

### dsconfig delete-trust-manager-provider

Deletes Trust Manager Providers

--provider-name {name}

The name of the Trust Manager Provider

-f | --force

Ignore non-existent Trust Manager Providers

### dsconfig delete-virtual-attribute

Deletes Virtual Attributes

--name {name}

The name of the Virtual Attribute

-f | --force

Ignore non-existent Virtual Attributes

### dsconfig get-access-control-handler-prop

Shows Access Control Handler properties

--property {property}

The name of a property to be displayed

-E | --record

Modifies the display output to show one property value per line

-z | --unit-size {unit}

Display size data using the specified unit. The value for UNIT can be one of b, kb, mb, gb, or tb (bytes, kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, or terabytes)

-m | --unit-time {unit}

Display time data using the specified unit. The value for UNIT can be one of ms, s, m, h, d, or w (milliseconds, seconds, minutes, hours, days, or weeks)

### dsconfig get-access-log-filtering-criteria-prop

Shows Access Log Filtering Criteria properties

--publisher-name {name}

The name of the Access Log Publisher

--criteria-name {name}

The name of the Access Log Filtering Criteria

--property {property}

The name of a property to be displayed

-E | --record

Modifies the display output to show one property value per line

-z | --unit-size {unit}

Display size data using the specified unit. The value for UNIT can be one of b, kb, mb, gb, or tb (bytes, kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, or terabytes)

-m | --unit-time {unit}

Display time data using the specified unit. The value for UNIT can be one of ms, s, m, h, d, or w (milliseconds, seconds, minutes, hours, days, or weeks)

Shows Account Status Notification Handler properties

--handler-name {name}

The name of the Account Status Notification Handler

--property {property}

The name of a property to be displayed

-E | --record

Modifies the display output to show one property value per line

-z | --unit-size {unit}

Display size data using the specified unit. The value for UNIT can be one of b, kb, mb, gb, or tb (bytes, kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, or terabytes)

-m | --unit-time {unit}

Display time data using the specified unit. The value for UNIT can be one of ms, s, m, h, d, or w (milliseconds, seconds, minutes, hours, days, or weeks)

--property {property}

The name of a property to be displayed

-E | --record

Modifies the display output to show one property value per line

-z | --unit-size {unit}

Display size data using the specified unit. The value for UNIT can be one of b, kb, mb, gb, or tb (bytes, kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, or terabytes)

-m | --unit-time {unit}

Display time data using the specified unit. The value for UNIT can be one of ms, s, m, h, d, or w (milliseconds, seconds, minutes, hours, days, or weeks)

--handler-name {name}

The name of the Alert Handler

--property {property}

The name of a property to be displayed

-E | --record

Modifies the display output to show one property value per line

-z | --unit-size {unit}

Display size data using the specified unit. The value for UNIT can be one of b, kb, mb, gb, or tb (bytes, kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, or terabytes)

-m | --unit-time {unit}

Display time data using the specified unit. The value for UNIT can be one of ms, s, m, h, d, or w (milliseconds, seconds, minutes, hours, days, or weeks)

### dsconfig get-attribute-syntax-prop

Shows Attribute Syntax properties

--syntax-name {name}

The name of the Attribute Syntax

--property {property}

The name of a property to be displayed

-E | --record

Modifies the display output to show one property value per line

-z | --unit-size {unit}

Display size data using the specified unit. The value for UNIT can be one of b, kb, mb, gb, or tb (bytes, kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, or terabytes)

-m | --unit-time {unit}

Display time data using the specified unit. The value for UNIT can be one of ms, s, m, h, d, or w (milliseconds, seconds, minutes, hours, days, or weeks)

### dsconfig get-backend-prop

Shows Backend properties

--backend-name {name}

The name of the Backend

--property {property}

The name of a property to be displayed

-E | --record

Modifies the display output to show one property value per line

-z | --unit-size {unit}

Display size data using the specified unit. The value for UNIT can be one of b, kb, mb, gb, or tb (bytes, kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, or terabytes)

-m | --unit-time {unit}

Display time data using the specified unit. The value for UNIT can be one of ms, s, m, h, d, or w (milliseconds, seconds, minutes, hours, days, or weeks)

### dsconfig get-certificate-mapper-prop

Shows Certificate Mapper properties

--mapper-name {name}

The name of the Certificate Mapper

--property {property}

The name of a property to be displayed

-E | --record

Modifies the display output to show one property value per line

-z | --unit-size {unit}

Display size data using the specified unit. The value for UNIT can be one of b, kb, mb, gb, or tb (bytes, kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, or terabytes)

-m | --unit-time {unit}

Display time data using the specified unit. The value for UNIT can be one of ms, s, m, h, d, or w (milliseconds, seconds, minutes, hours, days, or weeks)

### dsconfig get-connection-handler-prop

Shows Connection Handler properties

--handler-name {name}

The name of the Connection Handler

--property {property}

The name of a property to be displayed

-E | --record

Modifies the display output to show one property value per line

-z | --unit-size {unit}

Display size data using the specified unit. The value for UNIT can be one of b, kb, mb, gb, or tb (bytes, kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, or terabytes)

-m | --unit-time {unit}

Display time data using the specified unit. The value for UNIT can be one of ms, s, m, h, d, or w (milliseconds, seconds, minutes, hours, days, or weeks)

### dsconfig get-crypto-manager-prop

Shows Crypto Manager properties

--property {property}

The name of a property to be displayed

-E | --record

Modifies the display output to show one property value per line

-z | --unit-size {unit}

Display size data using the specified unit. The value for UNIT can be one of b, kb, mb, gb, or tb (bytes, kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, or terabytes)

-m | --unit-time {unit}

Display time data using the specified unit. The value for UNIT can be one of ms, s, m, h, d, or w (milliseconds, seconds, minutes, hours, days, or weeks)

### dsconfig get-debug-target-prop

Shows Debug Target properties

--publisher-name {name}

The name of the Debug Log Publisher

--target-name {name}

The name of the Debug Target

--property {property}

The name of a property to be displayed

-E | --record

Modifies the display output to show one property value per line

-z | --unit-size {unit}

Display size data using the specified unit. The value for UNIT can be one of b, kb, mb, gb, or tb (bytes, kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, or terabytes)

-m | --unit-time {unit}

Display time data using the specified unit. The value for UNIT can be one of ms, s, m, h, d, or w (milliseconds, seconds, minutes, hours, days, or weeks)

### dsconfig get-entry-cache-prop

Shows Entry Cache properties

--cache-name {name}

The name of the Entry Cache

--property {property}

The name of a property to be displayed

-E | --record

Modifies the display output to show one property value per line

-z | --unit-size {unit}

Display size data using the specified unit. The value for UNIT can be one of b, kb, mb, gb, or tb (bytes, kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, or terabytes)

-m | --unit-time {unit}

Display time data using the specified unit. The value for UNIT can be one of ms, s, m, h, d, or w (milliseconds, seconds, minutes, hours, days, or weeks)

### dsconfig get-extended-operation-handler-prop

Shows Extended Operation Handler properties

--handler-name {name}

The name of the Extended Operation Handler

--property {property}

The name of a property to be displayed

-E | --record

Modifies the display output to show one property value per line

-z | --unit-size {unit}

Display size data using the specified unit. The value for UNIT can be one of b, kb, mb, gb, or tb (bytes, kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, or terabytes)

-m | --unit-time {unit}

Display time data using the specified unit. The value for UNIT can be one of ms, s, m, h, d, or w (milliseconds, seconds, minutes, hours, days, or weeks)

### dsconfig get-external-changelog-domain-prop

Shows External Changelog Domain properties

--provider-name {name}

The name of the Replication Synchronization Provider

--domain-name {name}

The name of the Replication Domain

--property {property}

The name of a property to be displayed

-E | --record

Modifies the display output to show one property value per line

-z | --unit-size {unit}

Display size data using the specified unit. The value for UNIT can be one of b, kb, mb, gb, or tb (bytes, kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, or terabytes)

-m | --unit-time {unit}

Display time data using the specified unit. The value for UNIT can be one of ms, s, m, h, d, or w (milliseconds, seconds, minutes, hours, days, or w